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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Catherine Feeney on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MGT 2010 at Clemson University taught by Robbins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Principles of Management in Business, management at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
MGT 2010 Chapter 8 Notes Organizational Culture Structure and Design Organizational Culture Corporate Culture de ned as the set of shared taken for granted and implicit assumptions that a group holds and determines how it perceives thinks about and reacts to its various environments Organizational Structure formal system of task and reporting relationships that coordinates and motivates an organization s members so that they can work together to achieve the organizational goals Competing values framework organizational cultures can be classi ed into four types 1Clan 2 Adhocracy 3 Market 4 Hierarchy How Employees Learn Culture 1 Symbols an object act quality or event that conveys meaning to others 2 Stories is a narrative based on true events which is repeated and sometimes embellished upon to emphasize a particular value 3 Heros 4 Rites and Rituals Chester l Barnards de nition of an Organization a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more people Organization Chart box and lines illustrations showing the formal lines of authority and the organization s of cial positions or work specializations This is the family tree like pattern of boxes and lines Common Elements of Organizations Four Proposed by Edgar Schein 1 Common Purpose the means for unifying members organizations reason for being 2 Coordinated Effort working together for a common purpose the coordination of individuals efforts into a group organization wide effort 3 Division of Labor Work Specialization for Greater Ef ciency also known as work specialization the arrangement of having discrete parts of a task done by different people 4 Hierarchy of Authority The Chain of Command is a control mechanism for making sure the right people do the right things at the right time Flat Organization one with an organizational structure with few or no levels of middle management between top managers and those reporting to them Unity of Command an employee should report to no more than one manager in order to avoid con icting properties and demands Line Position Line Managers have authority to make decisions and usually have people reporting to them Staff Personnel have authority functions they provide advice recommendations and research to line managers Centralized Authority important decisions are made by higher level managers Very small companies tend to be the most centralized although nearly all organizations have at least some authority concentrated at the top of the hierarchy Decentralized Authority important decisions are made by middle level and supervisory level mangers The process of tting the organization to its environment is called contingency design Managers taking a contingency approach must consider the following factors 1 Environment mechanistic versus organic 2 Environment differentiation versus integration 3 Link between strategy culture and structure Tom Burns and GM Stalker Mechanistic Organization opposed to organic organization Mechanistic Organizations authority is centralized tasks and rules are clearly speci ed and employees are closely supervised Organic Organization authority is decentralized there are fewer rules and procedures and networks of employees are encouraged to cooperate and respond quickly to unexpected tasks Differentiation tendency of the parts of an organization to disperse and fragment Integration the tendency of the parts of an organization to draw together to achieve a common purpose On an organizational chart line positions are solid lines and staff positions are dotted lines Artifacts behaviors decorations awards rituals Philosophies beliefs and norms are a company s espoused values Span of Control number of people directly reporting to a manager Hierarchy Culture formalized structure internal focus aa variety of controlled mechanisms that measure ef cient timeliness and reliability Market culture values pro ts over employee satisfaction Adhocracy external focus and values exibility Employees are usually more committed in a clan culture Values and norms actually exhibited enacted State values and norms espoused