Up to Islam
Up to Islam BIOL 1000 - 001
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BIOL 1000 - 001
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Chambers on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1000 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Matthew Aaron Kearley in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
China s Tang Dynasty and the East Asian World Buddhism200AD Doesn39t really take hold because Confucianism is so popular 0 When Han dynasty falls people lose faith in Confucianism and nd Buddhism Comes from India modern Nepal 0 Siddhartha Gautama founder The Buddha Indian prince Lots of myths He was born the son of a king who wanted to protect him from the darkness of the world 0 His early years were spent in the palace where he never saw death or human suffering When he turned twenty he leaves the palace for the rst time and the rst thing he sees is an old man dying on the side of the road Spends the rest of his life trying to understand why 0 Believe in Karma and reincarnation 0 Karma determines what you39re reincarnated as 0 Ultimate goal is to achieve nirvana o Branches Theraveida not popular meditation based Mahayana popular in East Asia believe in Buddhist saints that can help you achieve enlightenment o Buddhism v Confucianism Buddhism personal separate from the world celibacy Confucianism work for the people family loyalty o Buddhist Temples can be places where priests pray for peace and protection Can pray toBuddha to get your ancestors into Nirvana Similar to Doasim so when translating Buddhist scripts they use Doaist terms so that Chinese will be more ok with it Takes deep root Chinese considered these foreign Buddhists equal so many of the nomadic tribes became Buddhist so that they would also be considered equal Chakravartin Buddhist belief of a righteous king which many leaders used as an excuse to be the king The Sui Reuni cation of China 570 AD Northern Shue people fall into decline and the noblemen of the tribe begin to take over YangJian China s Tang Dynasty and the East Asian World 581 AD 0 Captures throne o Reuni es china 0 Names himself Wan o Cultured king 0 Mix of Nomad and Chinese heritage Dynasty very short Built a lot 0 Reconstructs capital of Han Dynasty 0 Grand canal Connects Yangsa river in the south to the Yellow river in the north Without grand canal north would die 0 They relied on the supplies that came from the south 0 Government reform 0 Equal elds system 0 Doesn39t last long 0 Chinese culture spreads to modern day Korea and basically all over 0 Three kingdoms become established in Korea Goguryeo Baykche Silla o Gorguryeo begin to cause issues Very strong Shue send out military campaigns 0 Great defense 0 China looses 618 General decides he39s gonna die any way so he rebels against the king of the Shue dynasty 0 Li Yuan 618 AD Establishes Tang Dynasty Lasts approximately 300 years and is considered the greatest dynasty Similar to Shue 0 Taxes 0 Equal elds system Through all of the empire People who take some of the land owe taxes and services to the government 0 Military registration Wealthy peasants not all peasants Send one male 0 These families exempt from taxes Development of hereditary military families China s Tang Dynasty and the East Asian World Military force only good for short term campaigns not so much long term Most military families in the north South not many land owners only the great families Dual elite North soldiers hereditary military families 0 South politicians Problems 0 Threat to the nomads Kh ans Uyghrs o Tang pays them off and they become allies Emperor Tizah over throws his father 0 Attacks the nomads Makes them recognize him as Kaghen king 0 Extends power into central Asia Takes power of silk road 0 Relations with India and other central Asian countries such as Sogdia modern day Kazakhstan so that trade can expand Middle east Central asia Etc Trade from everywhere 0 Brings various in uential cultures Zoroastrianism Christianist Islam Various place of worship built for each religion 0 Many languages and religions Kingdoms being formed in the background while all this is going on 0 Tibet major rivals to the west great warriors o Nonchau to the south Wu Zeiton rst female empress Only woman to rule over China in her own name Ruled for 15 years She was not royalty but the daughter of a wealthy lumber trader Enters into inner court as a concubine mistress Commands affection of the emperors son 0 Wins favor of Gauzong o Convinces him to leave his wife and strip her of the title of empress so that she Wu Zeiton herself can become empress 0 Also convinces him to proclaim that the emperor and empress are equals Promotes Buddha and Doaism China s Tang Dynasty and the East Asian World After several of the emperors younger relatives become emperor she becomes empress When she does become empress she makes it look like she39s just being a loyal widow The great families don39t like her make up 90 of politicians o Creates exam to determine position in government Creates scholar of the North Gate 0 Personal think tanks 0 Moves against Goguryeo 0 Forms a treaty with Silla o Attacks from north and south 0 686 captures Goguryeo Campaigns against Tibet Shift 0 Creates garrisons Military stations on boarders for extended amount of time Can39t support this need for farming o Recruits the poor In exchange these people are given land and paid 0 Of cer corps picked from men 0 Gives commanders more and more power Authority over civilians and soldiers Became almost independent kings Can39t make her dynasty continue 0 Great families over throw her Xuanxong Peace insured by actions of Wu Zeiton Relies on his bureaucrats 0 Li Linfu most powerful builds up followers Toward the end of his reign the emperor begins to spend all his time with his mistress Yang Gui Fei 0 Not involved in government 0 Power falls on Li Linfu 0 Li Linfu does not allow any purely Chinese people to be military leaders only those who are mixed between the nomads and Chinese Anlushan given large military command 0 Yang Gui Fei makes her brother a politician 752 Li Linfu dies 0 Yang Gui Fei and her brother are now the most powerful 0 Go after Anlushan o Anlushan knows he39ll be attacked so he rebels against the Tang dynasty The Fall of the Tang Dynasty and the Rise of Islam China s Tang Dynasty and the East Asian World Anlushan revolt Result of ghting within the government 0 Emperor distracted by his mistress lets an advisor take over everything goes down hill from there 0 Military reform 0 Political reform Anlushan rebellion 0 Throughout the north 0 Troublesome Yang mistress39 family executed o Eventually AnLushan executed but rebellion continues 0 Opens China up to enemy attack Tibet takes the west Nomads attack so Tangs have to rely on nomadic allies Nomadic allies demand Chinese territory in exchange for their help 0 Tibet west 0 Uyghurs north 0 Nanzhao south 0 756 rebellion ends Emperor agrees not to arrestkill rebel leaders Gives them military positions 0 Basically independent kings of their given realms o Passes hereditarily Equal elds system ends in north because so many people ee from the north 0 South becomes source of economic flow Tang dynasty lasts another 150 years 0 Northern military governors cause so issues 0 Keep the majority of the taxes that they collect Tang capital decides to build up an army so they can attack the north 0 Stop paying attention to everything else involved in government Can39t pay officials Officials in the south start to do the same as those in the north because they aren39t getting paid 80039s 0 801 attack and recapture Tibet 805 attack military governors takes about 15 years but the north is eventually reintegrated Taxes are so high in the south that peasants can39t pay Peasants can39t keep land so they begin to rely on banditry 0 South becomes chaotic o Suppress banditry with military governors Governors decide they can rule better China s Tang Dynasty and the East Asian World Free for all war lords arise 907 Tang dynasty falls apart 907960 division 960 Song dynasty reunites china 0 Much weaker than Tang dynasty o Nomads and other enemies easily take the boarders Becomes very close minded 0 Very rigid 0 Much more focused on being Chinese Back track a little to Kazakhstan in 751 0 Prior to the Anlushan rebellion was occupied by Tang soldiers Group of middle eastern raiders Islamic Army attack Tang military and the Tang military is destroyed Islam is now the main in uence in central Asia Islam Origins Arabian peninsula Dif culty in agriculture 0 A few oasis39 and small towns surrounding them 0 Herding provides for some people 0 Some trade available Frankincense and mure Caravans travel all together 0 Limited resources don39t allow for government Pretty much tribe culture Much like in Germanic tribes if you murder a person of one tribe the loved ones of the victim have the right and obligation to take outrevenge Religion 0 Cross roads 0 A lot of contact with many cultures 0 Originally polytheistic 0 Town personal gods 0 Import some other gods 0 60039s monotheism becomes more common 0 Surrounding countries Isreal Christianity in Europe Persia monotheistic China s Tang Dynasty and the East Asian World Byzantine Empire remnant of Rome 0 Of cially Christian Sassanan Persian 0 Zoroastrianism Muhammed Ibn Abdullah 0 Born 570 in Mecca Small oasis town Trade and religion People make money off religious tourism Ruled by several tribes Quraysh Muhammed39s tribe 0 No de nitive information about his life Appears to have been an orphan from a young age and is raised by his uncle who was a caravan trader Welltraveled from a young age 0 At age 25 marries Khadiga age 40 who owns a large caravan trading company this was an arranged marriage Get along well Muhammed runs her business very well 0 Known as honest and upright businessman Ethical 0 Has a midlife crisis his is con icted about something Goes to caves around Mecca to meditate this was not uncommon Has his rst major revelation 610 0 Angel Gabriel tells him to recite o Thinks he39s going crazy so he talks to his wife who says it s from god 0 For the next 20 years he receives revelations Has seizures when he receives revelations o Revelations written down in the Koran quotthere is no god but god and Muhammed is his messengerquot god of Islam the same as the god of Christianity and Judaism Claims that Christians and Jews have twisted the truth Considered the Bible and Torah holy scripts just not completely accurate Muhammed considered the LAST prophet 0 To them nothing was new it was just denominational discrepancies A quotrevivalquot Umma all Islamic followers under and within one community Mu39minun believer in Islamic faith 0 All those within the Umma jews and Christians considered part of the same religion 0 Muhammed merely the messenger Not considered divinity Art in which he is depicted he does not have a face in order to avoid idolatry China s Tang Dynasty and the East Asian World Mecca to Medina Muhammed condemns the many gods that are represented in Mecca and which many families within Mecca rely on for their income Umma transcends tribes and family 0 0 Followers turn their backs on their tribes and families This causes an uproar Muhammed makes many enemies in Mecca O O Wealthy wife and other relatives are able to protect him 620 his wife and other relatives die and he is no longer protected 0 623 people of Yathrib have been ghting and call on Muhammed to be their mediator O O O O 0 628 0 630 O O 0 Gets the tribes to sign a contract that gets the tribes to work together He and all his followers move to Yathrib this journey is name Hijra and Yathrib is renamed Medina Initially everything is ne Every once in awhile he has a revelation Some people don39t like him All his followers do not have jobs By end of 623 his followers are in pretty dire straits Muhammed decides they will raid a caravan from Mecca War breaks out between Mecca and Medina Reach out to nomadic and surrounding tribes Muhammed and followers go on pilgrimage to Mecca Have a sit down with Meccan officials and create a peace treaty that is supposed to last 10 years On the same quotpeacefulquot trip they conquer many surrounding tribes Marches on Mecca again with around 10000 heavily armed followers Kills a few of his most outspoken enemies but for the most part they are dealt with leniently This upsets a few of his followers because they are given positions that they want even though they were not always behind Muhammed Becomes the leader Destroys all the shrines in Mecca except the one in the very middle which is converted to a shrine to Allah 632 Muhammed gets what looks like a simple cold and thinks he39s ne but then suddenly dies 0 Questions arise such as Do they need a new leader What about a new prophet
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