Chapter Eight Notes
Chapter Eight Notes JUST 281 7143 01
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiffany Hindman on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to JUST 281 7143 01 at Truman State University taught by J STAFF in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Intro to Forensic Science in Law and Legal Studies at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Chapter Eight Drug Dependence Psychological caused by underlying emotional needs stem from desire of self worth and escape heroin alcohol cocaine have high levels of psychological dependence marujuana and codeine have lower levels of psychological dependence Physical dependence physical need for the drug brought on by regular use Drug Types 1 Opiates oooooNo 0500 narcotics substances that relieve pain and produce lethargy by depressing vital body functions come from poppy seed plant Heroin reacting morphine with acetic anhydride or acetyl chloride soluble in water making IV quicker and more desirable euphoric feeling followed by happiness and drowsiness high lasts three to four hours only about 35 pure rest is mannitol or lactose additives made to sell more drugs Synthetic opiates drugs not naturally derived from opium but with same effects as opium narcotics oxycodone morphine would be examples similar chemical structure to opiates Hallucinogens alter mood attitude thought process and perception can lead to visual hallucinations and profound distortions in a persons perceptions of reality report rapid and intense emotional swings seeing images hearing sounds feeling sensations that seem real but are not Marijuana LSD PCP psilocinpsilocybin mushrooms MDMA ecstasy oUlooo coon 000V Mariiuana Most widely used in the US derived from plant in Asia quotCannibis sativa Lquot now migrated throughout world contains quothallucinogenicquot drug known as THC tetrahydrocanninol which is found in resin owers and leaves Very little in stems or seeds ingestion of marijuana causes euphoria red eyes rapid HR and impaired motor skills by binding to cannabinoid receptors in the brain low psychological and physical dependence associated 59 lea ets per stem serrated edges LSD Lysergic Acid Diethylamide synthesized form lysergic acid derived fro ergot fungus that attacks grass and grain potent causing immediate vivid visual hallucinations lasting twelve plus hours changes in mood anxiety tension low physical dependence many report long term psychological effects PCP Phencyclidine synthesized in clandestine labs by using dangerous industrial chemicals such as cyanide paint remover motor fuel etc combined sometimes with LSD or amphetamines or spread through pot before smoking known as Angel Dust results in feelings of strength detachment unresponsiveness confusion agitation can ingest in pills smoke or sniff Depressants calm irritability and anxiety induce sleep alcohol barbituates phenobarbital antianxiety lams and pams and solvents that can be huffed gasoline glue psychological and physical dependence is high seek the mellow effect Stimulants speed up the CNS causing increased alertness and activity examples are cocaine methamphetamine amphetamines short term effects include exhaustion apathy depression the down following the up you then crave the up psychological and physical dependence is high 8 Amphetamines prescribed to treat ADHD narcolepsy and obesity 0 can be altered to make meth synthesized in clan lab using ephedrine ammonia and coleman fuel 0 can be snorted smoked or injected 0 very short acting which is why dependence is so high 0 the high is obtained by increase in chemical in brain called dopamine with is involved in reward motivation pleasure motor function Meth releases dopamine resulting in the rush side effects initially wakefulness increased physical activity low appetite increased respiration rapid heart rate irregular heartbeat increased blood pressure and body temp long term extreme weight loss dental problems skin sores from scratching Increase in risk of contracting Hep B and C as well as HIV AIDS by needle sharing Meth is a secondary aliphatic amine this means that there are two carbonal groups a methal group 9 Cocaine drug that is extracted from the leaves of the cocoa plant grown in tropical Asia and Andes mountains causes alertness vigor suppression of hunger fatigue boredom most commonly snorted made by mixing cocaine with NaHCO3 and H20 over heat until it dissolves then dried and broken into chunks or crack rocks there are two forms HCI from the plant and cocaine free base crack crack can also be smoked causing same feelings as HCI short lived causing repeated use 10Club drugs synthetic drugs commonly used at nightclubs examples MDMA GHB Rohypnol ketamine usually in tablets GHB and Rohypnol are depressants usually associated with sexual assault rape robbery quotDate rapesquot their side effects are dissiness sedation headache nausea euphoria relaxation libido increase Roo es cause muscle relaxation loss of consciousness inability to remember odorless and colorless which makes easier to place in alcoholic drink MDMA is popular hallucinogen as well as stimulant most popular a results in good feelings euphoria 11Steroids synthetic compounds similar to testosterone chemically stimulate and accelerate muscle growth 0 side effects depression mood swings anger loss of sex drive Controlled Substance Act Feds established law classifying dangerous substances based on potential for abuse dependency and medical value The USAG can add delete and reschedule drugs Schedule one high dependency high level for abusedangerous no medical value heroin Schedule two high level for abusedangerous slight medical use hydrocodone meth Schedule three lower level for abuse danger medical use old hydrocodone Schedule four low risk of abuselow danger medical use antianxiety pams and la ms Schedule ve no potential for abuse danger medical abuse effedrin can be precursor to meth so must be observed when purchased Drug Identi cation Two types of analytical processes used by criminalist to id controlled substances 1 screening presumptive tests 0 color tests when mixed with reagents turn a certain color examples Marquis MDI cobalt thioeyanate methedrine KNOW FOR EXAM NOT CONFIRMATORY DOESN39T STAND ALONE AS IDENTIFYING DRUGS 2 con rmatory tests IDING marijuana three tests microscopic examination color testing THC testing microscopic testing looks for cystolith hairs bear claws which are calcium carbonate bases with hair protruding a microscopic test mixed with a color test and a THC exam will identify marijuana YOU MUST DO ALL 3
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