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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2310 at Texas State University taught by Joshua Quinn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Principles of American Government in Political Science at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
POSI Ch 9 Interest Groups Organizing for Influence The InterestGroup System a Interest group any organization that seeks to influence public policy i Differs from a political party in that parties address a broad range of issues ii Also called special interest or pressure groups iii Don t nominate candidates iv What would Madison have said 1 Factions could get too powerful and use the government interest groups are the same b Federalism and separation of powers fuels interest groups i Creates the opportunity for money and influence to get in the system ii The many layers means there are many places money could go c Tocqueville quota nation ofjoiners i People join groups in the US more than any other country ii Principle of association iii Not all groups that people join are interest groups iv United States 1 18 belong to no group 2 63 belong to 13 groups 3 19 belong to 4 or more groups v Germany 1 33 no group 2 60 13 groups 3 7 4 or more vi Great Britain 1 46 no group 2 45 13 groups 3 9 4 or more vii Italy 1 59 no group 2 40 13 groups 3 1 4 or more viii France 1 61 no group 2 35 13 groups 3 4 4 or more d 2 main types of interest groups economic groups and citizens groups i Economic groups most organized 1 Business groups a Almost every business has a group to represent it 2 Labor groups a Labor unions b Get collective rights c Have decreased in number d Most are public sector union e Consists of more than 50 of economic groups 3 Farm groups 4 Professional groups a Consists of doctors lawyers etc b Largest one is the American Medical Association c There is an impact on the rest of us i Group advocates for issues like medical health care which affects all of us 5 Material incentives a Jobs wages profits ii Citizens groups no economic means 1 Purpose incentives a Things that they think are worthwhile 2 Groups based on social groupings a Will advance a specific social group b NAACP ADA 3 Ideological groups a Push a moral purpose b Specific policy agendas narrow focus c Ideological interest groups contributions in the 2012 elections i Prolife 1 99 Republican 1 Democratic ii Environment 1 14 Republican 86 Democratic iii Gun rights 1 89 Republican 11 Democratic iv Women s issues 1 22 Republican 78 Democratic 4 Singleissue groups a Has the most policy agendas Largest citizens group Focus on one issue Agenda is the environment has tripled since the 1960s Sierra Club 1890 i One of the oldest singleissues groups 5 Citizens groups difficult to classify a Vary widely in their goals and methods b Difficult to separate them into categories e What would Madison say f The organizational edge economic groups versus citizens groups i Unequal access to resources size 1 Lobbying isn t cheap donors benefit from economic groups 2 Private goods versus collective goods 3 The free rider problem a People can benefit without donating to the common good example environment b 90 of people that listen to NPR don t donate ii New tech effect 1 For citizens groups 2 Easier to connect with people who have the same needs 3 Helps with fundraising iii The advantages and disadvantages of size 0906 1 The size factor business groups smaller and more efficient a Mancur Olsen i The larger the group the less it will further the common interest 2 AARP and strength in numbers a Leadership the age of the group members have one perspective g Advantages and disadvantages held by economic and citizens groups i Economic groups 1 Advantages a Economic activity provides the organization with the resources necessary for political action b Individuals are encouraged to join the group because of economic benefits they individually receive such as wages c In the case of firms within an industry their small number encourages organization because the contribution of each firm can make a difference 2 Disadvantages a Persons within the group may not support leaders political efforts because they did not join the group for political reasons ii Citizens groups 1 Advantages a Members are likely to support leaders political efforts because they joined the group in order to influence policy 2 Disadvantages a The group has to raise funds especially for its political activities b Potential members may choose not to join the group because they get collective benefits even if they do not join freerider problem c Potential members may choose not to join the group because their individual contribution may be too small to affect the group s success one way or the other II Inside Lobbying Seeking Influence through Official Contacts a Lobbying doing anything to influence public policy through direct contact with public officials b Inside lobbying acquiring cloi access to officials i quotRevolving door 1 Cycle of congressmen to lobby groups and back again i Supply officials with information policy support 1 Good can find out what their interests are 2 Bad bias get data from the industry iii Lobbyists must understand both the issues and the process iv Money is key element amount contributed is staggering 1 3 billion each year which is 13 million per hour v Lobbying Congress 1 Reputation a Don t lie to your congressmen it will put you out of business b Can t be too aggressive or will be turned back 2 Get information and legislative help vi Lobbying the executive branch 1 If listen to lobbyists more than Congress it creates problems 2 FDA is an example of an executive branch agency lobbied by groups vii Lobbying the courts 1 Interest group show downs a Will use the court system sue b How policy comes about c Groups in conflict battle in court example environment vs oil groups c TopSpending Lobbying Groups none are citizens groups i US Chamber of Commerce 1 51955000 ii National Association of Realtors 1 25943435 2 Realtors deal with many laws and want a say in policy iii Blue CrossBlue Shield 1 17076780 2 Health insurance iv American Hospital Association 1 14106478 2 Health insurance v Comcast 1 13950000 2 Business d Webs of influence groups in the policy process i Iron triangles 1 Bureaucrats lobbyists legislators a Tied by a specific issue 2 Small informal stable a Information and money changes hands b Less common today ii Issue networks 1 Officials lobbyists and policy specialists 2 Temporary a Come together around more than one issue b Diverse interests make it less stable 3 More frequent than iron triangles iii Example of iron triangle 1 Government agency gives program administration to interest group interest groups gives agency lobbying support 2 Government agency gives constituent services to congressional subgroup subgroup gives agency budget and program support 3 Interest group gives election support to congressional subgroup subgroup gives interest group favorable legislation III Outside Lobbying Seeking Influence through Public Pressure a Constituency advocacy grassroots lobbying i Public demonstrations writing ii Specialty of the AARP iii Members of the public try to get lawmakers attention b Tactics used in Inside and Outside Lobbying efforts i Inside Lobbying 1 Developing contacts with legislators and executives 2 Providing information and policy proposals to key officials 3 Forming coalitions with other groups ii Outside Lobbying Encouraging group members to write phone or email their representatives in Congress Seeking favorable coverage by new media Encouraging members to support particular candidates in elections Targeting group resources on key election races 5 Making political action committee PAC contributions to candidates c Electoral action votes and money i PACs political action committees 1 Solicits funds and donates to candidates 2 Funneling a group s election contributions 3 PAC contributions limited to 10000 per candidate for each election cycle a Loophole will support several candidates 4 Most PACs associated with business a Where the money is 5 Give much more heavily to incumbents a 8 times as much b May refuse to give to incumbents and give to their opponents as punishment ii Percentage of PACS by category 1 Business related 64 a Trade 22 b Corporate 42 2 Citizen 28 3 Labor 7 4 Agriculture 1 iii Super PACs or independentexpenditureonly committees IEOCs 1 Citizens United v Federal Election Commission 2010 Not allowed to contributecoordinate directly to the party or candidate Unrestricted fundraising and spending Disclosure of donors not required Hot debate Are voters getting more information or just biased propaganda IV The Group System Indispensable but Biased in Favor of Economic Groups a The contribution of groups to selfgovernment pluralism i Multiple points of view that people can listen to or understand and gauge their personal opinion ii Serving the public interest 1 Increase jobs push issues forward people more aware of things b Flaws in pluralism i Interestgroupliberalism 1 Extends power to government wants more government involvement ii Not equally representative 1 Interest groups and whoever has money has the advantage iii A Madisonian dilemma idea of factions 1 A free society must allow pursuit of selfinterest a People must be able to express what they want 2 Checks and balances work to protect rights but also exaggerate the influence of minorities 3 Groups can wield too much influence over individual policies or agendas a Agency capture b ADA doesn t listen to the individual but will listen to lobby groups c Has potential to put too much power in the hands of the individual 4 Liberty is to faction what air is to fire PWP mesa sz
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