Chapter 1 Lecture Notes- Introductory Psych
Chapter 1 Lecture Notes- Introductory Psych PSYC-1000-04 (Psychology, Rollins, Bethany, Introductory Psychology
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PSYC-1000-04 (Psychology, Rollins, Bethany, Introductory Psychology
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Downs on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-1000-04 (Psychology, Rollins, Bethany, Introductory Psychology at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Psych Chapter 1 1 The need for Psychological Science a Hindsight Bias the I knew it all along phenomenon b lntuition an effortless immediate automatic feeling or thought c Hindsight bias overcon dence and our tendency to perceive patterns in random events often lead us to overestimate our intuition d Critical Thinking thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions It examines assumptions appraises the source discerns hidden values evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions 2 Research Strategies How psychologists ask and answer ques ons a Scienti c method a self correcting process for evaluating ideas with observation and analysis b The Scienti c Method i Theory explains behaviors or events by offering ideas that organize what we have observed ii Hypothesis a testable prediction often implied by a theory iii Our theories can bias our observations iv Operational De nition a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures used in a research study v Replication repeating the essence of a research study usually with different participants in different situations c Description i Case Study a descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles ii Naturalistic Observation a descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring settings without trying to control the situation iii Survey a descriptive technique for obtaining the self reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group usually by questioning a random sample of the group a Wording effects even subtle changes in the order or wording of questions can have major effects b Before accepting survey ndings think critically Consider the sample The best basis for generalizing is from a representative sample D Correlation vi vii Correlate a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and thus of how well either factor predicts the other Correlation Coef cient a statistical index of the relationship between two things Scatterplot a graphed cluster of dots each of which represents the values of two variables A correlation coef cient helps us see the world more clearly by revealing the extent to which two things relate Regression toward the mean the tendency for extreme or unusual scores or events to fall back toward the average When a uctuating behavior returns to normal there is no need to invent fancy explanations for why it does so Regression toward the mean is probably at work Correlation does not prove causation Correlation indicates the possibility of a causeeffect relationship but does not prove such E Statistical Signi cance
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