Introduction to PSY 101
Introduction to PSY 101 PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camila Perez on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Gayle Fraught, Callie Gibson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see intro to psychology 101 in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Introduction 2 Psychology 0 What is Psychology 2 the scienti c study of how people think behave Z the study of the penis mind brain and behavior 0 Include wide variety of topics 2 Attentions Z Neurotransmitters 2 Classical Conditioning 2 Dissociative Identity Disorder 0 Precursors of Psychology LControl of Human Behavior Plato believed the brain controlled human behavior Aristotle believed the heart controlled human behavior 2 PhHosophy Lockes Tabua rosa Rousseau s Noble savage 3 Nature vs Nurture Nature genetics Nurture environment 0 pevelgpmentof Penis Psychology 1 Welhelm Wundt rst psych lab introspection structure of human consciousness 2 Edward Titchener structuralism like a puzzle individual parts 3 William James functionalism the whole picture 4 Charles Darwin Adaptation Natural Selection Survival of the ttest Gestalt Psychology 1Max Wertheimer 2Ku rt Koffa Experience is more than the sum of its part Functionalism is too limited ln uences by Sensation and Perception and Personality o Perspective in Psychology 1Psychodynamic Sigmund Freud Historically Behavior guided by conscious forces currently thought processes occur without our awareness in uence on Pop Culture been widely discredited Lgehaviorism identifying laws that predict behaviors behaviors observable response John Watson and BF Skinner are two Behaviorist 3 Cognitive Learning Theorist quotthe black boxquot how people mentally representation info making decisions memory language 4 Biological Phineas Gage study Subject iSocial How people interact Attitudes Situational in uences on behavior cross cultural pattern pf behavior Kurt Lewis was a Social Psychologist Research Methodology LWhat is scienti c Inquiry Four Primary goals Description Prediction Control Explanation what when why of behavior and mental processes 2 Elements of Scienti c Method Theory Hypothesis Research Support the theory Refute or fail to support L Research Includes Variable Variable anything measured or manipulated in research attributes that vary across individual and situation such as age sex and popularity Operational De nition Exact wording for how a variable is measuresmanipulated i How to Operamnalige a Variable identify the concept you hope to measured Q How to measure the variable You can watch peoples reaction example Pizza example L Independent Variable variable manipulated by the researcher presumed cause of the reaction Q Dependent Variable out come variable response measured in the experiment presumed effect of the IV IV DV 0 Research in Psychology 2 gt 2 Three main Types 1 Descriptive 2 Correlational 3 Experimental When to use real word setting Case Studies Intensive examination of unusual people or organization Advantages can provide extensive data about one or a few individualorganization Disadvantag shbjective results cannot be generalized to the population Loservamnal Techniques systematic assessment and coding of overt behavior Advantag able to generalize results to results to real world setting Disadvantages Reactivity Knowledge that one is being observed alters behavior Observer Bias Errors that occurs because of observers expchon Experimenter Expectancy Effect actual change in behaviors due to the expectations of the observer 0 Self Report Methods surveys and interviews 2 Advantages Large samples easy to administer cost effects and relatively fast 2 Disadvantages Self report bias people can introduce bias into their answer may recall info inaccurately 0 Correlat n Studies examine how variables are related without intervention by the observer gt Advantages Rely on naturally occurring relationship 2 may take place in a real world setting Disadvantages cannot be used to support causal relationship correlation causation o Direction of Correlations 2 Iv Iv 2 2 Positive Correlation two variables either increase or decrease TOGETHER move in the same direction Negative Correlation Variabl 5 move in opposite direction Correlatio Causation cause andeffect inference in correlation is not jusU ed Direction of causation problems correlation between two variables not indicate the other 3ml Variable Problems Correlation between two variables may stem from both being in uenced by some third variable Why use Correlational Designs making prediction ethical reason 0 Experimental Design 2 gt Experiment Researcher manipulates an IV to examine its efforts on it DV Advantages can demonstrate causal relationship avoid the directionality problem Disadvantag often take places in an arti cial setting 2 Groups Experimental group who is presented the experience of interest receives the IV or manipulation Control Group Group who is not presented the experience of interest but is treated similarly comparison group that does not receive the IV or manipulation placebo gt Examining Causality gt IV assumed to be caused of change in the DV must minimize possibility of anything other than IV will affect outcome Confound anything other than the IV that affects the DV 0 Sampling 2 Population representing every member of the group gtSamoe gt gt subset of the larger population that the data is collected from Representative sample the sample re ect the important characteristic of the population Sampling bias every member does not have the same chance of being included in the research Random Sampling every person in the population has an equal chance of being selected most researcher use a convenience sample to population allows us to generalize nding from sample to population Random Assignment participants have equal chance of being assigned to any level of the IV increase likelihood that groups are equivalent at start of experiment Selection Bias groups not equitant because differ in expected way that affect the DV random assignment prevents selection bias confound 0 Nature VS Nurture 2 Iv Iv Iv Genech how characteristics are passed to offspring and how genes are turned on and off genetic predisposition determine environment we select for ourselves genomes are the master blueprint Nucleus gt Chromosomes DNA Genotype genetic make up neverchanges not all genes expressed Phenotype organism observable physical characteristics always changing in uences by both genetic nature and environment nurture Environment Every aspect of the individual and hisher surrounding other than genes Genes genetic material is passed on as chromosomes long threadlike molecules made up of DNA through reproduction 23 chromosomes 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes karyotype shows the 23 pair of chromosomes in the human Sex Determination sex chromosomes female XX male XY Genetic Diversity created by sexual reproduction from the parents 8 million different combination of 23 chromosomes possible genetic recombination errors during cell division of zygote leads to mutations mutations produce ability or behavior that may be advantages or disadvantages to organism Chromosomal Abnormalities Down Syndrome Trisomy 21 Edwards Syndrome Trisomy 18 Patau Syndrome Trisomy 13 Criduchat deletion of Chromosome 15 Sex Disorders Turner Syndrome X Triple X Syndrome XXX Klinefelter Syndrome XXY XYY Syndrome XYY 0 Child Genotype Phenotype only some of those genes are expressed z Dominance Pattern Two or more genes alleles inherits two of the same alleles homozygous inherits two different alleles homozygous 2 Dominant Genes AA or Aa can be heterozygoushomozygous Iv Iv Iv Iv Iv Iv Recessive Genes aa have to be homozygous Mendelian Inheritance punt squares Autosomal Disorders Dominant Huntington s Disease Myotonic dystrophy Marfan Syndrome Achondroplasic Recessive Cystic Fibrosis sickle cell anemia congenital adrenal hyperplasia Recessive X linked Disorders Dominant Relt Syndrome Fragile X Syndrome Recessive Color Blindness Hemophilia Albinism Polygenic Inheritance occurs when traits are governed by more than one gene not product of single dominantrecessive genes pairing but rather effect of multiple gene involves several different genes that contribute to any given phenotype outcome Continuing Chapter 3 FY Polygenic inheritance Occurs when traits are governed by more than one gene Not product of single dominant recessive gene pairing but rather effects of multiple genes Involves several different genes that contribute to any given Applies to most traits and behaviors of interest to behavioral scientists EX Shyness aggression and language learning Diseasesdisorders Cancer etc Disorders of Unidenti ed Genetic Basis Dyslexia Tourette syndrome Autism spectrum disorder Perhaps polygenic Behavior Genetics Concerned with how human variation results from the combination of genetic They do this by family study Use two methods to assess degree to which traits inherited Twin studiesadoption studies Chapter 4 Brain Structures and Function Topics covered Nervous SystemNeuronsNeurotransmittersstructures in the brain Central nervous system Brain spinal cord Peripheral nervous system Somatic MS Autonomic MS Neurons Basic unit of the nervous system Receive integrate and transmit info Sensory Afferent goes from the outside world to your brain Motor Efferent goes from the brain out to the rest of the body Interneurons Relay neuron They translate the sense to other neurons Interneurons are the most abundant type of neuron only found in the central nervous system Neurotransmitters Chemical substances that carry messages from one neuron to the next Neurotransmitters In uence mental activity and behavior Drugs synthesisamountreuptake Agonist drug or substance that mimics action of neurotransmitter Antagonist drug or substance that blocks action of neurotransmitter Types of Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine muscle contractions Botox Dopamine reward and pleasure centers motivation and focus Norepinephrine attention fightor ight Epinephrine adrenaline increases HR muscle strength blood pressure metabolism Serotonin regulation of mood control of appetite sleep dreaming arousal and pain regulation GABA inhibitory molecule nature s Valium Endorphins blocking pain controlling emotion N and Ntransmitters don t cause diseases or disorders however a lack of Ntransmitters can be due to denegation of the pathway that contains the majority of the receptors for that Ntransmitters Brain Stem Consists of medulla life functions oblongata pons and mid brain Controls life functions Houses reticular formation alertness Cerebellum Essential for movement coordination and balance Forebrain Hypothalamus regulates internal organs and bodily actions 4 f s Thalamus receives all sensory information Hippocampus associated with memory Amygdala emotional information Basal ganglia planned movement Cerebral Cortex Occipital Lobes Vision Parietal Lobes touch and understanding spatial information Temporal hearing face and object recognition Frontal attention inhibition decision making movement Motor action and movement Somatosensory sensation Auditory processes audio Visual in charge of processing visual info Association interprets and integration Brain Communication Internal Environment Autonomic nerves system central nervous systems External Environment Sensorysomatic nerves systems central nervous systems Parasympathetic Stimulate the ow of salvia slows heartbeat constricts bronchi contracts bladders SympatheticDilates pupils inhibits the ows of salvia accelerate heart rate Endocrine system Testis for males ovaries for women Brain Change Genes and Environment effect how the brain changes Neuroplasticity the brain changes with experience In the experiment with the rats the brain in the rats changed because of there environment the rats that had stimuli had bigger brains Critical period the period when the brain changes in languages vision Cultures MIT found that people from different cultures use their brain differently to solve the same visual perceptual tasks what the brain finds rewarding re ects depends on the value of the cultures Rewiring Sex also pays a role that can cause differences For example in size women have more wrinkles and men have bigger brains connectivity Women connect across the brain and men connect between the same lobes Left and Right side of the brain Estrogen important for certain neurons to work Recovery like from stroke brains heal differentlybecause of age gender and the severity of the injury family functional social status genetic make up cognitive capacity
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