Scientific Method Lecture
Scientific Method Lecture 40763 - BMS 110 - B
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by tess2019 on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 40763 - BMS 110 - B at Missouri State University taught by Ivy J Fitzgerald in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introduction to the Biomedical Sciences in Biomedical Sciences at Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Scientific Method Monday August 17 2015 1245 PM Observe Hypothesize Experiment Collect and analyze data Interpret data Draw conclusions Communicate findings NP P PWF Scientific Method Terminology Hypothesis an informed proposed explanation of how something works plural hypotheses Observation active acquisition of info from a primary source Data measurements taken from experiment Result statement of data eg quotA is twice as big as Bquot Interpretation Assignment of meaning to a result Conclusion integrating interpretations from multiple experiments to form a complete picture lndependentvariablewhat is changed varied in an experiment Dependentvariable what changes when the independent variable changes what is measured during the experiment Controlled variables aka constant variables what is held the same between experiments this should be everything that affects the dependent variable except the independent variable only ONE thing should change in an experiment everything else should be held constant Sample size n the number of objects observed 0 More observations gives more data which improves the ability to make an accurate assessment ofthe relationship bt variables 0 Resources are limited limiting what size sample population is practical Repeatability getting the same results in multiple experiments Reproducibility getting the same results under diff circumstances if you do the same experiment do you get the same result I got Causation one thing directly effects another thing eg the toaster being on browns bread Correlation things are associated and occur together but my not have a causeeffect relationship breakfast time and browned bread Theory a welltested explanation for an observed phenomenon that provides a framework for predicting the outcome of further experiments 0 The theory of gravity predicts that if you drop something it will fall to the ground and describes the acceleration ofthe object Model a way ofthinking about an explanation for a phenomenon which provides a framework for thinking about the phenomenon and designing future experiments can39t really be tested but have evidence to support it fill in gaps between what we don39t know yet Experimentation Blind experiment one party does not now if they39re getting the experimental regimen or the control regimen Doubleblind experiment neither the experimenter or the subject knows ifthey are getting the experimental regimen or the control regimen Being quotblindquot prevents bias 0 You would expect the person who got the experimental regimen to get better and the person who got the placebo to not improve which may affect how you judge their state Placebo the control regiment that should not affect the dependent variable What makes a good hypothesis Testable must be able to be tested experimentally Falsifiable must be able to be proved false Hypothesis Null hypothesis the hypothesis that the IV has no effect on the DV Alternative hypothesis the hypothesis that the IV directly affects the DV One tries to disprovethe null hypothesis if the null hypothesis is false this supports the alt hypothesis A hypothesis can be proven false it can39t be proven true Statistical Significance 5 1 in 20 chance that the results are due to chance rather than direct cause and effect relationship Reasoning Inductive reasoning developing a general statementfrom specific observations Extrapolation from data Reasoning used in science Eg the sun rose in the morning today and yesterday and the day before therefore I believe it rises every morning Deductive reasoning using a general statement to predict a specific outcome 0 Formal reasoning Reasoning used in math Eg the sun has risen every morningfor a millennia sol would expect it to rise tomorrow morning Lecture Outcomes List and describe the steps ofthe scientific method in order 0 Describe a good hypothesis 0 Explain what independent dependent and control variables are 0 Explain the difference between causation and correlation Explain why blind studies are used
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