Health and Wellness and Sensation
Health and Wellness and Sensation PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camila Perez on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Gayle Fraught, Callie Gibson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see intro to psychology 101 in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Health and Wellness Health Psychology Integrates research on health and on psychology Emphasizes the importance of lifestyle factors to physical hea h Well being positive state that includes striving for optimal health and life satisfaction Psychosocial Factors 0 Biology gender physical illness disability genetic medication effects 0 Psychology learningmemory attitudesbelief personality behaviors emotions coping skills past trauma 0 Social Context social supports family background cultural traditions socialeconomic status education 0 All these factors effect your health Biopsychosocial Model Laughter Biological Reduced blood pressure and heart rate Indirectly stimulates endorphins Reduces cortisols Psychological Helps us think creatively Confront our own mortality Social Telling a joke increase sense of belonging and social cohesion Laughter counteracts feeling of alienation Rejection Biological Amygadala Stress response GABA less GABA in your system after being rejeceted Genetic predisposition Psychological Personality 0 Sensitivity Anxiety or the fear of reject can increase anxiety 0 Identity Social 0 Support system 0 Learning our community 0 Early trauma 0 Social skills The Placebo Effect Dealing with Stress How we cope Release of cortisol our stress hormone Release of norepinephrine and epinephrine which activates the sympathetic nervous systems ight or ght Heart rate increases digestion slows pupils dilate sweating increase sense more acute All because of the activation of the sympathetic nervous systems Stress and Gender 0 Women are less likely to ght in the ight or ght systems 0 Tend or befriend Key hormone oxytocin Flight or Flight key hormone testosterones 0 Women show behavioral and neurological signs of being more empathetic under stress 0 Men are more likely to socially withdraw and numb themselves with alcohol are more aggressive under stress Blushing is a stress response General Adaptation Syndrome Alarm Stage the stressors upsets hemostasis or cellular balance 0 Resistance Stage Body ghts back by adjusting to the stress Exhaustion StageRest permits enhanced adaptation No rest overtraining injury lack of adaptation The Human Function Curve 0 Some stress is good for us but then you hit a point when you can t handle it anymore 0 Be aware of your level of stress Type A Behavior Pattern level of epinephrine is higher in Type A Competitive Achievement oriented Aggressive Hostile Impatient Type B Behavior Pattern Noncompetitive Relaxed Easy going Accommodating Primary Appraisal Personal stake in encounter Evaluates the signi cance of the encounter which either has no signi cance for the person Stressful situation are appraised Harmloss Threats ChaHenges Secondary Appraisal To work how we can best deal with the situation 0 Evaluate internalexternal coping options lnternal option will power inner strength External optionspeer professional health Problem Based Coping Used when feel we have control of the situation thus can manage the source of the problems Problem Strategies De ning the problems Generating evaluating alternative solutions Learning new skills to manage stressor Reappraising by reducing our ego involvement Attempts to change negative emotionsstress Emotional Based Coping when we don t have control of the situation 0 Thus we can t mange the source of the problem 0 Some can be unhealthy like Avoiding Distancing Acceptance Seeking emotional support Attempts to reduce negative emotional stateappraisal of demand Individual Differences Personality Hardness commitment challenge control Resiliency Self Ef cacy Family Intervention motivation modeling healthy behaviors Behavior Affecting Health Smoking Leading to premature death Health disease Cancer Other health People typically start smoking in childhood or adolescence and once you start its hard to stop normally m Mood Enhancement within 5 minutes of moderate exercise but after 30 minutes you don t feel the difference Can help alleviate long term depression Health Anxiety Buffering the brain Habts Can develop through repetition 0 Habits can develop when events trigger the brain s reward center 0 Changing habits Being Positive 0 Increase life span Lowers rate of depression 0 Lower levels of distress Social Support 0 Social support reduces blood pressures and stress hormones Confiding in others helps mange painful feeling 0 Having close friends is associated with improved health immune functioning Spirituality 0 Can contributes to your wellbeing Sleep and Drugs Effect on Consciousness ConsciousnessSubjective experience of the world resulting from brain activity 0 Sleep is very individualistic Average person sleeps about 8 hours per night Infants sleeps much of the day Amount decrease with age Sleep cycle whole cycle is 90120 minutes Stage Onewhen you jerk in your sleep Stage Twothe most time you spend the most sleep Stage threedeep sleep Stage four deep sleep sleep walking Stage fiveRem when you re dreaming happens light sleeping And you cycle right back through it again Why do we sleep Adaptive Sleep serves important biological purposes restoration circadian rhythms facilitation of learning Restoration Sleep allows body to rest and repair itself Evidence Seep increase after strenuous physical activity Growth hormones secreted in sleep Repenishes brain s energy stores Strengthens immune systems Circadian Rhythms Many creatures quiet and inactive during night because darkness is time when danger is highest 0 Reduced risk of exposures to predators Human adapted to sleep at night because early ancestor were more at risk in dark Facilitation of Learning 0 Sleep Strengthens neural connection needed for learning 0 Memory in participants who sleep greater than it those who didn t REM and slowwave sleep important for learning Sleep Deprivation effects Mood problems Decrements in cognitive performance 0 Weight gain Compromised immune system Sleep Deprivation Records 0 Peter Tripp201 hours 0 Symptoms after 3 hours found things hilarious that were not funny at all confusion easily upset Became psychotic Slept 13 hours after 0 Randy Gardner264 hours 0 Symptoms moodiness problems with concentration paranoia delusions Slept 15 hours later Sleep Order lnsomnia difficulty falling or staying asleep Obstructive Sleep Apnea breathing stops at night Narcolepsy sufferers unexpectedly fall asleep 0 REM Behavior Disorder sufferers act out their dream Somnambulismsleep walking happens mostly in childhood and when it happens in adulthood its hard to stop Insomnia Difficulty falling or staying asleep 0 Symptoms Lying awake for a long time before you fall sleep Sleeping for only short periods Waking up too early Sleep Apnea 18 million suffers in the US 0 men are at a 3 times greater risk then women 0 factors that increase risk smoking and high blood pressure 0 stress on the heart 0 stress on the brain mood disorder 0 reaction time slowed memory loss fatigue and sleepiness stress on the libido Narcolepsy chronic sleep disorder that causes overwhelming daytime drowsiness Drugs Drugs create altered states 250 million people use illicit drugs each year Psychoactive Drugs mind altering substance that change brain s neurochemistry stimuants depressants hallucinogens Drug Effects 0 effects of drug depend on which neurotransmitter system it activates Marijuana most widely used illicit drug relaxed contented mood more vivid preceptions not easily categorized psychoactive ingredient THC medical use is controversial cannabaniod receptors Amphetamines history of use for weight loss staying awake Methamphetamine World s second most commonly used illicit drug 0 Increase dopamine production block reuptake Damages brain structures responsible for cognition memory and emotions Causes considerable physical damage Cocaine Long history of use in US Stimulant Increased alertness increased con dence and sociability Increased dopamine levels at synapses Can lead to paranoia psychotic behavior and violence MDMAEcstasyMolly Gained popularity since raves of the 905 0 Users feel energized and may hallucinate Lowers dopamine increase serotonin availability 0 May produce depression memory loss Opiate Depressant Used to relieve severe pain Heroin morphine codeine Users experience analgesia relaxation euphoria 0 Highly addictive 0 Long term use can lead to attention and memory problems Alcohol 0 Most widely abused drug Belief that alcohol has positive effect on emotions and behavior Improve social skills Enhance sexual Boost con dence and power 0 But alcohol major contributor to Spousalabuse Traf c fatalities Unsafe sex Loss of productivity at work Addiction 0 Drug use that remains compulsive despite negative consequences Physical dependence involves Tolerance increasing amount of drug needed to achieve intended effect Withdrawal physiological and psychological state characterized by feeling of anxiety tension and cravings for the addictive substance Psychological dependence involves drug craving without tolerance or withdrawal when you re just craving a beer Addiction s Causes 0 Physiological Activation of brain dopamine systems that play role in pleasurable experience drugs create and regions that govern craving Heredity may play a role Psychological Sensation seeking personality trait Social learning modeling behavior Sensation Sensann Sense organs detection and response to external stimuli and transmission of response to brain Eyes ears lt does not involved perception It happens rst and then perception happens Perception Brian s processing of detected signals resulting in internal representation of stimuli that form conscious experience of world Helps us better understand what is going on in sensation Sensory Coding Sensory receptors translate physical properties of stimuli into patterns of neural impulses Transduction Process of which sensory receptors produce neural impulses when receive physical or chemical stimulation Taste Molecules dissolved Cells in taste buds on Portions of facial in fluid on the tongue the tongue glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves Smell Molecules dissolved Sensitive ends of olfactory Olfactory nerve in fluid on mucous neurons in the mucous membranes in the membranes nose Touch Pressure on the skin Sensitive ends of touch Cranial nerves for touch neurons in skin above the neck spinal nerves for touch elsewhere Hearing Sound waves Pressuresensitive hair cells Auditory nerve in cochlea of inner ear Vision Light waves Lightsensitive rods and Optic nerve cones in retina of eye Sensory Thresholds Absolute Threshold Minimum intensity of stimulation that must occur before you experience a sensation Ex Taste 1 teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water 0 Difference Threshold Minimum amount of change required for a person to detect difference Detected the different tones Sensory Adaptation Decrease in sensitivity to constant of stimulation If a stimulus presented continuously response of sensory systems that detect it diminish over time l3asic Sensory Processes Sense of Taste Gurstation Taste buds on tongue Detect chemicals Stimulated taste buds send signals to brain which produce experience of taste 0 5 Basic Qualitles sweet sour salty bitter and umami Sense of Smell Olfaction Basic Process Odorant pass into nose and nasal cavity Contact thin layer of tissue embedded with smell receptors called olfactory epithelium Smell receptors transmit information to olfactory bulb brain center for smell Most direct route to brain Sense of Touch Haptic conveys temperature pressure pain and where limbs are in space skin senses operate through nerve receptor cells located at various depths throughout the skins distributed unevenly throughout the body Sense of Sound Audition Object movements and vibrations cause displacement of air molecules which produce sound waves Amplitudes determines loudness Frequency determine pitch Ears convert sound waves to brain activity which produces sensation ofsound Vision Eyes detect light waves very little of seeing takes places in eyes but rather results of constructive processes in brain Basic Structures cornea lens pupil iris retina Retina Two types 2 Rods respond at extremely low levels of illumination responsible for night vision found on outer edges of retina g Cones less sensitive to low levels of light responsible for vision under high illumination and for seeing both color and detail found throughout retina but concentrated at fovea Contain photopigments that initiate the transduction of light waves into electrical neural impulses Transmission From Eye to Brain Ganglion cells are rst neurons in visual pathway with axons which are gathered into bundle called optic nerve Axons in optic nerves cross to left and right hemispheres travel to visual areas of thalamus and then to primary visual cortex in occipital lobe Color 0 Object appears to be particular color because of wavelengths of light it re ects Trichromatic Theory Activity in three different types of cones that are sensitive to different wavelengths Opponentprocess Theorydifferent types of ganglion cells working in opposing pairs create perception that RG and BY are oppsosites Other Sensory Systems Kinesthetic Sense Perception of body s position in space and movement of our bodies amp our limbs Vestibular Sense Perception of balance Uses info from receptors in inner ear Sensation Perception All sensory information expect smell directed to thalamus and projected separately fro thalamus to primary sensory areas of cerebral COl tEX U My Eamatle Banana Perception Process of Sensation Reception the stimulation of sensory cells by energy sound light heat Transductiontransforming this cell stimulation into neural impulses Transmission Delivering this neural information to the brain to be processed II I H I HIM FESIEHQIquot Mutter rrma min i quot quot 39V 39v V Eensmymap in garment gyms 39 39 39 V I V pastuentrall gyms Primary snmaimw sensaw i precentral PEEK i 39 gymsi Pn mnt l 39 gyms How Pain Works Neural gates in spinal cord control pain Adrenaline can hinder the gates Pain Perception Distracting ourselves Visualizing pain as more pleasant Being rested and relaxed Learning how to change the brain activity that underlies pain perception Taking drugs that interfere with the neural transmission of pain Perception in Hearing 0 the brain localizes sound by comparing the times that a sound arrives at the individual ears and by comparing the magnitudes of the resulting sound waves at the ears Perception in Vision 0 the occipital lobe Dorsal what s moving Synesthesia Can involve any of the senses A condition in which one sense is simultaneously perceived as if by one or more additional sense just about any combination is possible ex certain color to certain word Factors in uence Visual Perception Gestalt Psychology object perception requires construction Object Perception Requires construction and involves two processes Bottom up processes sensory information Top down processes expectation about what we will perceive Specialized areas of the brain dedicated to faces Fusiform gyrus video Prosopagnosia not recognizing peoples faces also have trouble reading facial expressions Functions recognizing members of same race or ethnicity facial expression and gaze direction Depth Perception The brain uses binocular cues monocular cues and motion cues to perceive depth Binocular disparity and convergence are binocular cues Binocular the two different eyes take in different information For all this attention is really important We have to be aware of our environment to be able to sense it and then perceive it Our senses are not always reliable
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