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Chapter 10 Notes Exam 2

by: Alexis Junge

Chapter 10 Notes Exam 2 BIOL 600

Marketplace > Kansas > Biology > BIOL 600 > Chapter 10 Notes Exam 2
Alexis Junge
Introd Biochemistry, Lectures
Guzman, Roberto/Walsh, Agnes

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Chapter 10: Carbohydrates These notes were taken during the lecture
Introd Biochemistry, Lectures
Guzman, Roberto/Walsh, Agnes
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Junge on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 600 at Kansas taught by Guzman, Roberto/Walsh, Agnes in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Introd Biochemistry, Lectures in Biology at Kansas.


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Date Created: 10/05/15
Chapter 10 Sugars hydrates of carbohydrates Saccharides sweet Monosaccharides simple sugar subunit Polysaccharides polymers of monosaccharides Carbohydrates C H O polar Aldose sugars with aldehyde Ketose sugars with keto group simplest sugars 3C atom have keto or aldose group stereoisomers D or L mirror images D Ribose RNA 5 Carbon atom Deoxyribose DNA missing one OH group DGlucose 6 Carbon atom sugar D Mannose 6 Carbon atom sugar D Galactose 6 Carbon atom sugar D Fructose 6 Carbon atom sugar ketone alcohol hemiketal Aldehyde alcohol hemiacetal sugars have aldehydes and alcohols so they can form cyclic forms Glucose and Mannose are epimers on the second carbon the OH group and H are flipped but the rest of the molecule is iden cal ALpha and Beta are anomersneed cyclization DFructose sugars of fruit 6 carbon atom ketose cyclize to alpha and beta forms Chair Form Glucose Boat form sterlc repulsion HAW HO O HO OH OH All big groups are equatorial CHZOH and OH s Things that make sugars more polar 1 Acetyl 2 Carboxylic acid 3 Phosphate NOT methvl orouos 0 Sugar polysaccharides are difficult to make homogenous because synthesis has no template 0 Sugars are made by the enzyme glycotransferases polysaccharides polymers of sugars homopolymer of glucose ex cellulose starch glycogen heteropolymer glucose another sugar ex Galactose o Humans have no enzymes to break down the glycosidic bonds in cellulose so we can t go out and eat grass Polysaccharides have branching DNA RNA Proteins gt don t have branching Starch Amylose linear polymer of glucose a 14 glycosidic bonds Amylopectin branched polymer branching a 16 glycosidic bonds for every a 14 glycosidic bonds Glycogen Linear a 14 glycosidic bonds Branching more branching than starch a 16 glycosidic bond Cellulose Beta 14 linkages Hnear no branching all OH groups are hbonded orderly packing why it s so sturdy Glycoproteins 1 Glycoproteins more protein by weight Example Erythropoietin Lance Armstrong surface of cells communication and cell to cell recognition why the AIDS vaccine failed why we get the flu why we can t just do any kind of blood transfusion blood types Two Types N Linked glycoprotein because of Asparagine O Linked glycoprotein because of Serine Threonine Tyrosine OH groups 2 Proteoglycans more sugar by weight Example shock absorbers joints cartilages absorb water like sponges for shock absorbing highly negatively charged sulfate 3 Mucins or Muc0proteins mainly carbohydrates by weight Example Lubricants Mucin lubricant protective layer for bacteria Chitin exoskeleton for bugs Which amino acids are used for the attachment of carbohydrates to proteins All the OH groups Asn Ser Thr Tyr Failure to degrade glycoproteins sugars will accumulate in Iysosomes brain cells mental retardation Tay Sacks Syndrome Lectins proteins that bind sugars Selectins cell to cell recognition


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