10/24 Ethnicity, Gender, and LGBT Identities
10/24 Ethnicity, Gender, and LGBT Identities PSC1001
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Date Created: 10/29/14
1024 Ethnicity Gender amp LGBT Identities Key Terms gender gap party candidate quotas reserved seats How do subordinate groups gain a voice Differences between gender ethnicity LG BT Ethnicity in Politics ethnicity is important in politics often forms the basis of identities ex India castes tribes religions Hindu Nationalist Party BIP party of the scheduled casts untouchables ethnic based conflict ex Nigeria religious divide many different groups Gender and Politics can be politicized feminist movement mother s movements Las Madres de Plaza de Mayo mothers against Argentine dictatorship children disappeared killed records gone like they didn t exist movement spread rarely basis of political party Iceland didn t go anywhere Sweden not enough votes needed 4 to get in to Parliament Why no women parties women don t see themselves as actors in politics geographically dispersed live with men cross cut by other identities class ethnicity etc vs Ethincity geographically clustered solidarity common interest overlaps with other identities in Voting rich democracies historically women tended to vote conservative 1970s women have tended to vote left thus women have some influence see slides single women create the gender gap LG BT Identities geographic despersion but gay communities in cities create solidarity crosscut by other identities structural minority just not enough numbers to have significant influence civil society activism is the way to go Political Representations small ethnic groups LGBT women underrepresented have the numbers but not the influence see slide Why do women have low representation structural factors economic development and number of women in parliament more representation of women education gt employment gt political participation exception oil rich wealthy nation depresses women s employment cultural modernization changes in attitudes towards women Samues impact of religion on attitudes toward women and gender roles criticism a bit too broad of a statement values and lack of women in politics see slide institutional electoral system PR more women in office peope s bias against women is less apparent bc list vs list instead of person vs person institutions can sort of fix these issues combination of factors How do we fix it ethnic minorities power sharing PR coalition building federalism setting aside seats for minorities ex India 84 out of 545 seats set aside for scheduled castes Women parties must put forth a certain percent of female candidates formal mandated informal voluntary more effective ex France reserved seats less common India proposed law Rwanda has this women only lists Afghanistan at least two women per province What is the right remedy Htun quotas for women reserved seats for ethnic minorities Critics essentialism primordialism France debate reinforces identities divisions papers over real forms of oppression authoritarian legislature has no power LGBT Community global social mobilization women s rights LGBT rights women social movement values change civil rights spread around the globe though international organizations World Bank United Nations European Court of Human Rights InterAmerican Court of Human Rights Importance of Social Movements lack of political power have to persuade others democracy vital live openly mobilize freely change attitudes A oppressive countries go after this A BUT demagoguery is also a risk Conclusions political identities work differently different potential for influence globalization of ideas movements