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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Royal on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010 at Auburn University taught by Seth A Gitter in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Introduction to Psychology 2010002 Seth Gitter 0928 102 14 Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning Associate a behavior with a consequence Two types 0 Reinforcements strengthen behavior 0 Punishments discourage behavior Examples 0 Getting a paycheck for working is an reinforcement 0 Getting a speeding ticket is a punishment Law of effect a rewarded behavior is likely to reoccur Steps Wait for organism to perform behavior Rat performs behavior Reward punish EFFONE Repeat Reinforcement o Reinforce anything that strengthens behavior 0 Positive reinforcement 39 Administer pleasurable stimulation 0 Negative reinforcement 39 Remove stimulation 39 Eg taking pain medication 0 Both increase the likelihood of behavior Punishment 0 Punishment anything that discourages behavior 0 Positive punishment 39 Administer uncomfortable stimulation 0 Negative punisher 39 Remove pleasurable stimulation What happens to the behaviour 7 Decrease Likelihood i i39iili39111 ivlquot 139 1 II i39ii39 quoti39iii39i 1 Pu nish want 15 D EM 01 quot5 uEO 25 39 i l 15322 1 iquot H 391 ivrllquot I 1 gjiii ital H337 j PLI HiSh men i Reinforcement schedules 0 O 0 Fixed vs variable May not want to always reward behavior Fixed 39 Receive reward every X units Variable 39 Receive reward on average every X units Interval vs ratio Interval 39 Receive reward after for first behavior after a certain period of time 39 Lever press gets reward X mins must elapse before another lever press gets rewarded Ratio 39 Receive reward after certain of responses 39 Receive reward for X lever presses Different schedules of reinforcement lead to different patterns of learning Fixed Interval FI 39 Ps rewarded for first response after a specific amt of time has elapsed 39 Time is constant 0 Checking the mail 0 NOT hourly pay Variable Interval VI 39 Ps rewarded for first response after a specific amt of time has elapsed 39 Time is variable 0 Fly fishing Fixed ratio FR 39 Ps rewarded after a specific of responses 39 of responses is constant 0 Piecemeal payment schedule 0 Extra lives in video games Variable Ratio V R 39 Ps rewarded after a specific of responses 39 of responses is variable 0 Gambling O tuninlaiin numhaalr Elf IEEpr il EEI39E Tima 0 Variable Ratio is most effective 0 Why is VR most effective 39 Partial reinforcement e rect 0 If you are rewarded every single time you will notice the absence of reward 0 If reward is variable however it is harder to identify the absence of reward Shaping 0 Some behaviors are too complex to expect the target to do randomly o Shaping successive reinforcement of the desired behavior 0 Reinforce close behaviors 0 Continue reinforcing slowly moving toward the correct behavior Operant conditioning 0 Is operant conditioning good for anything other than dog training 39 ABA Applied Behavior Analysis 0 Used to 0 Treat autism 0 Child training programs 0 Super Nanny Observational learning 0 O O 0 Albert Bandura Learn by observing others behaviors and their consequences Social Mode Anyone whose behavior we learn from 1960s research with Bobo dolls and aggression 39 we like to emulate those we see as similar to us or that we admire In a wellknown experiment preschool children pounded and kicked a large in ated Bobo doll that an adult had just beaten on Children emulate the adults Other factors in social learning 39 Vicarious reinforcement 39 Bandura followup 39 Same set up as before but with consequences 0 Adult rewarded 0 Adult scolded 0 No consequences Memory Memory is 0 Any indication that has persisted over time o Eg correctly recalling something following a procedure an automatic association Three types 0 Sensory memory 39 Largest capacity shortest storage 39 Very brief fades away quickly 39 Iconic memory 0 Memory for visual information 0 Seeing letters for a short time o Shortterm working Memory 39 Longer duration than sesory 39 Can last for minuets 39 Attention directed to important info from sensory memory 39 Can only recall 7i2 units limited 39 Units can be 0 Individual letters numbers 0 Words concepts chunks 39 Four componets 0 Central Executive 0 Phonological loop 0 Visuospatial sketchpad 0 Episodic Buffer 39 Central Executive The Boss of WM 0 m information that s important 0 Encodes Information from the 561250131 system 0 Retrieves information from LTM 39 Episodic buffer 0 Responsible for information about the self and episodes of your life 0 The cocktail party effect 0 Will hear your name or something similar over a lot of people s voices 39 Phonological Loop responsible for words speech numbers 0 Inner voice talking to yourself as you read 0 Often misremember letters based on sound rather than shape o D is confused with T not with O o More likely to confuse jacket with packet than jacket with coat 39 Visuospatial sketchpad responsible for visual and spatial material 0 Long Term Memory 39 Distinguishing from short term memory Serial position effect Primacy effect Recency effect 39 Three steps to information processing Encoding Putting information into memory Storage Keeping it there Retrieval Getting the information back out when you need it Eg Encoding Fading out mentally when my BF asked me to fill our water filter 0 Storage Junior High math I rock the math but I seldom have to use algebra o Retrieval Trouble remembering names I know I know the name 0 Problems with any step can screw up the whole process 39 Automatic encoding Just like automatic processing 0 Doesn t require awareness 0 Fast and efficient 0 Not great with compleX information Day to day life 0 What did you have for lunch today Movie lines o Mama always said life was like o Annoying song lyrics 0 My milkshake brings all the Lots of things slip by unnoticed o What a penny exactly looks like Implicit memory memories retrieved without awareness Procedural Memory remembering how to do things 0 You never forget how to ride a bike Effortful encoding 0 Just like conscious processing 39 Good for compleX and novel information 39 Slower but durable and accessible 0 2 possible processes 39 Rehearsal repeatedly going over material 0 Spacing effect Elaboration connecting material relating to other stuff you know 0 Explicit memory memory retrieved with conscious effort 0 Declarative memory being able to explicitly recall information o Episodi knowledge concerning speci c events 0 Semantic knowledge of facts independent of knowledge of when you learned them 0 How we store retrieve memories 0 Schemas webs of information Schemas Snake Lizard American Short Hair Ticmi 3311i 39terriier Russisin C315 blue Burmese Ereagile chiilhuah39ua Himalayan Dogs Dashsund needle Gelden Reiriever Labireder 0 Memories are webs of associations Longterm memories are stored based on meaning 0 Memories are not pictures More like computer storage 0 Binary code 0100011101010 0 Representational storage 0 Depth of processing The more you engage in elaboration and processing during encoding 0 The more meaning the memory will have 0 The better it will be stored 0 The easier it will be to recall Different types of encoding 0 Shallow processing maintenance rehearsal 0 Deep processing elaborative rehearsal Deeper processing associated with greater brain activity 0 Greater brain activity leads to better memory