BISC Notes Week of 9/28
BISC Notes Week of 9/28 BISC 1005
Popular in The Biology of Nutrition and Health
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biological Sciences
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by SophieSol on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 1005 at George Washington University taught by Scully, T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see The Biology of Nutrition and Health in Biological Sciences at George Washington University.
Reviews for BISC Notes Week of 9/28
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/05/15
Functions of proteins continued Review Transport blood cholesterol 0 Lipoprotein o HDL high density lipoprotein Brings fats home 0 LDL low density lipoprotein Bring fats to cells 0 Channel proteins 0 Tunnels in cells that all speci c substance in and out 0 Carrier proteins 0 Physically moves to bring a substance in or out of cell Catalysis Speeds up reactions 0 Enzymes do this Defense 0 Proteins called antibodies are produced to defend against speci c invaders Communication Insulin and Opposing protein glucagon regulate blood sugar Leptingrelin regulate appetite Gene regulation 0 Gene expression genes are turned off or on at certain times 0 Transcription factors turn the gene on or off Diet can in uence this Proteins Built from amino acids 0 20 different amino acids 0 You don t get all of these from every single type of food you eat 0 Structure 0 De nes function 0 The sequence of amino acids is their structure 0 This is not just a string but there are overall 3 dimensional structure 0 Folding function Must be correctly folded to be functional 0 ie Hemoglobin needs 2 string of alpha and 2 string of beta 0 Denaturation o Destruction of a protein s threedimensional shape making the proteins unfold Heating them up Changing pH or making very acidic Increase salt concentration 0 Like a predigestion of proteins 0 Functions in the body 0 Hair color Eye color Muscle Texture of skin hair nails All characteristics that make individuals themselves are do to proteins Nucleic acids Nucleotides are the building blocks of hereditary material 0 DNA becomes turned on and becomes RNA which is then translated and produces a protein You should take vitamins after a meal so that you can break down the substance Vitamins Needed in tiny amounts 0 Help regulate metabolism 0 Delivery agents 0 Signaling o Protecting against damage from taking place from free radicals Organic molecules 0 Water soluble Can consume at high rates and is okay on the short term 0 Fat soluble Can get locked up in fat stores if you are consuming too much 0 Most common vitamin de ciency in the US Vitamin B6 0 Red blood cell production 0 Vitamin D is the only vitamin that humans can synthesize yet people get inadequate amounts 0 Vitamin D vs skin cancer 0 We cannot manufacture vitamin C o Antioxidant properties 0 Break down free radicals They are very energetic easily cause damage to DNA 0 le smoking pollution in ammation etc other things that cause harm or damage to DNA Vitamins absorb free radicals OOOO Minerals 0 Highest mineral de ciency is iron 0 Minerals we need come in form of ions 0 Minor minerals make up about 6 of bodyweight Trace minerals are less than 1 Maintain homeostasis Signaling for nervous and muscular function Protein and vitamin function Maintain teeth and bones Breaks down food or substances to get energy out of them 0 00000 Digestion GMOs lssues lodine O O O O lron Critical for metabolism From salt From seafood Not enough Your thyroid swells and you get a goiter on the side of throat Fluoride for teeth Helps to keep microbes in balance Cobalt 0 We don t currently have to label if things have GMOs in the US 0 Genetic engineering Takes DNA from one organism and inserts it into another crop or animal to modify that organism to produce a protein that you want seen Drug production Food production Curing genetic disease Food supply Herbicide resistance 0 Pest resistance 0 Viral resistance 0 Male sterility Nutritional changes 0 Higher yield Triploid oyster Genetically modi ed organism Gets to market size in 12 months 0 Disease resistant Available all year round Sugar Beets have the highest percentage of genetically engineered crops in the US Top producers Corn wheat soybean Most GMOS are fed to animals we eat not directly foods we eat REGISTER with DSS for exam Roundup prevents plants from making an essential amino acid 0 Bt corn 0 A gene inserted causing plant to produce an insecticide 0 Doesn t cost farmers as much because they produce more crop 0 Health concerns with GMOs o Farming concerns GMO uses 0 We don t use them as a whole product Starch High fructose corn syrup Corn soybean canola oil Sugar Essential most are processed food additives Potatoes squash apples papayas Grapeseed oil canola oil 0 Food processing 0 Enhancing colors Farm raised salmon has food coloring added to it because it is not eating the natural things that make it pink 0 Augment the avors Hydrogenated oils are trans fats Hydrolyzed food products are added to foods to make them tasty Sweet sour bitter salty umami o Extend shelf life Preservatives 0 Improve texture Trans fats 0 Reducing calories through removing trans fats o Preservatives o GRAS substances generally recognized as safe compounds 0 Old techniques are smoking sating drying freezing sugaring 0 New techniques 0 High fructose corn syrup 0 Naturally occurring carbohydrates digested to create fructose Need less so it is cheaper Food labels 0 Organic vs natural 0 Organic Grown and processed using organic farming methods that recycle resources and promote biodiversity OOOOOO Crops grown without synthetic pesticides bioengineered genes petroleum based fertilizers and sewage sludge based fertilizers cannot be irradiated 0 Natural Can t be highly processed so you can have an organic product that isn t natural More regulated in poultry and meat industry 0 Adding Heat to a System 0 Denature proteins 0 Vitamins in foods can degrade 0 Burning causes carcinogens to form grilling