10/29 Political Violence
10/29 Political Violence PSC1001
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Date Created: 10/29/14
1029 Political Violence Key Terms political violence civil war terrorism revolution genocide What is R use of force to achieve political goals can be stateled or not lecture will focus on nonstate forms bc people outside are important contrast to stateled staterepression nonpolitical violence mafiagangs examples of political violence revolution terrorism why does it happen structural nature of the state weakness key predictor strength terrorism often used against strong states geography terrain that is easy to hide in is more conducive to civil war economic development low level of economic development gt unhappy people gt civil warrebellion individual motives elite leadership vs participant foot soldiers rationality vs emotion rationality material goods calculating use of violence violence is not a product of crazy people it is calculated ex ISIS videos calculated scripted planned they have goals emotion stems from deep hatred ethnic ancient religious one conclusion elites have more rational motives participants have emotional motives elites need the crazy ones to be foot soldiers regime transformation public mobilization mass component coup mobilizes a small group of people effort to seize control of state goal of profound change ex Chinese Revolution and Russian Revolution violence often happens connected or not to seizure of power don t happen very often coups more common Arab Spring Revolutions Egypt and Tunisia yes Libya sort of less clear Syria civil war Bahrain revolution blocked by state why do they happen need a group of people that want change overcome free riding problem factors but need something else deprivation extreme poverty ex Marxist revolution came from unequal societies oppression restriction of population alternate idea what can we get that we don t have new ideology ex democracy in Haiti leadership helps overcome collective action problem waves of revolutions ex communist movements Arab Spring revolutions connected to each other states fail to repress revolutions state starts to fall apart not able to repress revolution international pressures other states don t want that state to repress the revolution division among elites ex military refuses to repress population loss of foreign ally ex Soviet Union woudn t help repress people in Eastern Europe countries coudn t repress the revolution so it happened thus state weakness mass mobilization revolution hard to explain seems to come out of nowhere Samuels definition threatuse of violence with a political goal directed at people not actively in combat civilians sometimes military other features contestation over meaning terrorist vs freedom fighter ex John Brown radical abolitionist violence is the only way to end slavery Harpers Ferry Armory terrorism but with a noble goal ex Richard Reid shoe bomber 2001 I m a soldier in an army No you re not you re a terrorist small groups claim to have a large following assert broad legitimacy performative symbolic ex 911 World Trade Center communicate message shock and terrorize people different types international vs domestic statesponsored terrorism history of terrorism late 19th early 20th century anarchists socialists nationalists assassination of Franz Ferdinand started WWI 1960s leftist revolution movements Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine PFLP Red Army Europe Weathermen US recently increasingly dramatic PFLP hijacking airplanes 1970 Munich Olympics decline of left wing terrorism bc decline of communism ethnic religious terrorism increases ex Radical Christians Oklahoma City catastrophic suicide terrorism more extreme and targets more people Why does it happen structural poveny inconclusive terrorists aren t from poorest areas hard to know foreign intervention sometimes weak groups against powerful states who intervene ex Lebanon barracks bombing made the US leave role of states weak states terrorist groups can develop there strong states can provoke terrorist groups depends on context individual rational Pape article have an end goal the best way to get there happens to be terrorism bc it gets responses works so groups keep using it social dynamics social networks sense of community importance of elites necessary to draw people in Role of Religion Juergensmeyer religion is an important factor but not a cause creates good vs evil view provides moral justification cosmic war religion makes conflicts more intense creates all or nothing sense of battle Conclusions revolutionterrorism relatively rare but impact is farwide reaching difficult to explain bc of human factor
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