GEOG 150: Week 2 Notes
GEOG 150: Week 2 Notes GEOG 150
Popular in Introduction to Human Geography/Introduction to Cultural Geography
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Gladding on Monday October 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 150 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Meg Streiff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Geography/Introduction to Cultural Geography in Geography at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 10/05/15
Monday September 28 2015 Lecture Population amp Health Measuring Population Change Crude Birth Rates What are the population change characteristics of population growth and decHne What is the biggest driver of population change What is the crude birth rate and what are the problems associated with it Why are birth rates falling in Japan Why are there high birth rates in places like subSaharan Africa Niger and Afghanistan population growth lots of babies high immigration population decline notalot of babies high death rate people are leaving all comes down to fertility biggest driver of population change Pros and cons to population growthdecline crude birth rate number of live births per 1000 people per year problem this measure only looks at 1000 people without regard for age gender does not tell us anything about the population birth rates falling Japan women getting educated having careers married later birth control expensive to have children high birth rates subSaharan Africa Niger Afghanistan women do not have much education age of marriage 12 or 13 no access to family planning low status of women pove y more kids are an economic asset What is the total fertility rate What are the similarities between TFR and CBR Which is harder to bring down birth fertility rates or death rates Will fertility continue to decline At what rate How can the birth rate be brought down Monday September 28 2015 Total Fertility Rate a much more useful measure of birth rate only looking at women in reproductive age total fertility rate TFR average number of children a women has between ages of 15 and 49 same exact causes for highlows as crude birth rate same places with highlow TFR as crude birth rate fertility and birth rates are much harder to bring down than death rates for the world as a whole assuming that fertility will continue to decline for the same reasons as low crude birth rate women being educated working having children later learning about birth control lowering the fertility rate does not have to be about money can be brought down with education education about birth control Prenatal care and postnatal care are really important in bringing fertility rates down prenatal care bring down child mortality bring pressure of women to have many babies in hopes that some survive What happened in Iran after 1979 Who is using birth control and what kinds What is the crude death rate Monday September 28 2015 Iran unlikely success story in bringing down the fertility rate before 1979 loose after 1979 Islamists took control of the government those religious leaders abolished family planning 19803 fertility rate went up to 5 in the 1980s Iran was in a war with Iraq because Sudham Hussain invaded Iran Islamic leaders in Iran encouraged women to have more babies so they could fight in the war 1988 war ends Iran realizes can t keep up the growth rate Late 1980s 1990s started encouraging even requiring birth control brought fertility down quickly despite religion even the most Catholic people Italy are using birth control depending on your geography use different kinds of birth control What is mortality influenced by How many people have Malaria What are the common characteristics of people who have Malaria What does the word malaria mean and what is the history of identifying it Monday September 28 2015 Mortality is influenced by political environment war access to healthcare and what kind of healthcare some healthcare is better than none level of nutrition access to clean water sanitation environment air water and soil quality pollution occupation climate larger elderly population leads to higher death rates ie US includes infant mortality rate IMR number of babies who die before the age of 1 good measure of living standards and access to healthcare Malaria half million people are dying of malaria a year every minute a child dies of malaria in Africa mosquito most deadly animal similar climate warm humid bodies of water don t have good healthcare malaria bad air thought it was because of the swampy air 1997 cause for malaria correctly identified What is being done to help get rid of malaria ls malaria changing What is the outlook of malaria for the future What are the biggest san a onissues How many people have HIV How many people die from HIVAIDS Monday September 28 2015 health workers educate villages about malaria mosquito nets spraying DDT DDT insecticide helped US and other countries get rid of Malaria farmers over sprayed DDT on crops poisoned birds fish been shown now DDT can be used in small amounts diluted with water the mosquito and the disease are adapting medicines starting to not be as effective worms common in contaminated water lack of toilets composting toilets can t afford plumbing don t use much or any water don t use energy separate liquid from solid solid is separated for 6 months becomes fertilizer biggest problem shifting public perceptions 39 million people living with HIV 6000 people die a day from HIVAIDS What are the different reasons for high rates of HIV in different places Monday September 28 2015 high rates of HIV for different reasons in different places SubSaharaian Africa didn t know condoms could save your life US transmission among gay males Russia heroin transmission through needles many partners Summary Birth rate is the driver of population change It is very difficult to change the birth rate Action is being taken to get rid of malaria and it s working Millions of people are living with HIV and it is caused by different things in different places Knox amp Marston Pages 6470 Monday September 28 2015 Geographies of Population and Migration Describe China in terms of population and population control What was one outcome of China s One Child PoHcy What are shengnu What is demography What do population experts use to assess a population What are censuses and vital records What are the limitations of the census most populous nation most aggressive to control population One Child Policy One Child Policy led to an unbalanced sexratio due to sexselective abortions shengnu leftover women women not married by the age of 27 because of education careers etc demography the study off the characteristic of human populations geographers think of populations in terms of the places they live censuses and vital records census a count of the number of people in a country region or city vital records report births deaths marriages divorces incidence of certain infectious diseases carried out at various levels of government Limitations of the census expensive labor intensive incompatibility of census dates for comparison between within countries underrepresent nonmainstream households ie gay households Population Distribution and Composition What affects population distribution What is density What are the four types of dens y What is population composition Monday September 28 2015 population distribution environmental and physical factors policial characteristics economic characteristics cultural religion tradition history accessibility topography soil fertility climate weather water availability and quality natural resources type and availability Population Density density ratio of number of people and some other unit crude density arithmetic density total number of people divided by total land area tells little about variations nutritional density ratio between total population and amount of land under cultivation agricultural density ratio between number of agriculturists per unit of farmable land health density ration of number of physicians to total population Population Composition the subgroups that constitute population for understanding population dynamics Summary China s One Child Policy was effective but led to an unbalanced sex ratio Demographers use censuses and vital records to asses populations but they have their limits Crude nutritional agricultural and health are four types of population density Rubenstein Pages 4259 Monday September 28 2015 Population and Health Parts 13 What are the 4 major population clusters What are the general rules of the 4 population clusters What causes certain regions to be sparsely populated What is cumene What does arithmetic density answer What does agricultural density show What do combinations of two types of densities show What are four components of population growth Where is the world s population distributed Population concentration 4 major population clusters East Asia South Asia Europe Southeast Asia General rules of 4 population clusters lowlying fertile soil temperate climate near ocean or near river with easy access to ocean not in middle of landmass Sparser populated regions too drywetcold mountainous for activities such as agriculture ecumene portion of Earth s surface occupied by permanent human settlement Population density arithmetic density answers where question physiological density number of people support by arable land agricultural density ratio number of farmers to amount of arable land shows economic differences arithmetic physiological capacity of land to produce food physiological agricultural relationships between population and resources Why is global population increasing components of population growth crude birth rate CBR crude death rate CDR natural increase rate NIR percentage by which a population grows in a year measures population growth as difference between birth and deaths births and deaths measured using several indicators CBR CDR total fertility rate TFR What does a population pyramid show What is The Demographic Transition What is the first stage of The Demographic Transition What is the second stage of The Demographic Transition What is the third stage of The Demographic Tranisition What is the fourth stage of the Demographic Transition Monday September 28 2015 Population structure a community s distinctive distribution by age and gender can be displaying in a population pyramid sex ratio Why does population growth vary among regions The Demographic Transition a process of change in a a society s population from high CBR and high CDR and low NIR to low CBR low CDR low NIH and high total population 4 stages 1 Low growth high birth high death no long term natural increase hunters amp gatherers 2 High growth declining death rates high birth rates high natural increase Industrial Revolution in Europe North America Medical Revolution in Africa Asian amp Latin America 3 Decreasing growth low CBR low CDR natural increase begins to moderate people have less children 4 Low growth low CBR low CDR no longterm natural increase possibly a decrease zero population growth ZPG women in labor force birth control Denmark column shape of population pyramid 1O What causes birth rates to decline Summary Monday September 28 2015 Declining birth rates 1 Lowing birth rates through education healthcare improve economic condition women attend school get jobs understand reproductive rights survival of more infants ensured 2 Lowering birth rates through contraception developing countries demand exceeds supply Must distribute more more quickly and cheaply The four population clusters have similar characteristics Different types of population densities give different information The demographic transition is a four stage process in which countries move from high CBR high CDR and low NIR to low CBR low CDR low NIR and a large total population 11 Lecture Wednesday September 30 2015 Population amp Health How many people are living with HIV What kind of cure treatment is there for HIV Why are the numbers of people dying from HIV coming down What contributed to South Africa being having the most people with HIV What is the history of ebola Why did ebola spread in 2014 37 million people worldwide are living with HIV but many people haven t been tested no cure or vaccine 15 million37 million are taking medicine numbers of people dying from HIV are coming down antiretroviral treatment slows down the disease more people using condoms reducing of partners reducing mothertochild transmission via medicine Disaster for South Africa 19941999 Nelson Mandela did nothing about HIV 199920056 Thabo Mbeki don t need to know that name did nothing Botswana giving antiretroviral treatment for free Ebola Crisis Early On Badly Managed ebola virus thought to be carried in fruit bats other animals some Africans eat these animals Thought disease began in Congo in 1976 multiple small outbreaks in rural settings epidemic kept very local 2014 epidemic spread so quickly because it spreads through direct contact with bodily fluids sweat saliva blood vomit urine semen people did not understand what this disease was how it was transmitted that they needed treatment suspicious of of foreign doctors about 11000 deaths from rural to city slums where people are in close contact infected many more people 12 What conditions made West Africa the perfect place for an Ebola outbreak What impacts life expectancy What is the significance of TUskegee Wednesday September 30 2015 perfect conditions in West Africa Guinea Sierra Leone Liberia weak healthcare systems still getting on their fear from brutal civil wars in the 1990s completely unprepared for epidemic very few doctors nurses efforts to track down virus and contain it were totally Sloppy must quarantine people who are sick gt relatives and healthcare systems got sick wideopen national borders poor infrastructure no hospitals running water electricity protective gear burial teams lack of public health information on prevention amp treatment strong cultural traditions wash the body before burial gt infected relatives general distrust of government result of years of civil war corruption thought they would get sicker if went to the hospital slow international response Military established temperature checkpoints Life Expectancy Impacting life expectancy health care economics politics environment occupa on gender culture Tuskegee impacted whether people went to the doctor US Public Health Department did a medical trial in Tuskegee on 600 black men that had Syphilis Did not give them penicillin wanted to see what happened if they didn t do anything gave them a placebo even now Southern blacks are suspicious of the doctor 13 What are population pyramids What do a broad base steep sides and vertical sides indicate What are the three things to think about when looking at a population pyramid What else can you see in a population pyramid What do the population pyramids for Qatar Cambodia Iran and France show Wednesday September 30 2015 Population PyramidsAge Sex Structures bar graphs displayed horizontally that show the distribution of a population in age groups youngest people on the bottom oldest on the top classic triangle shape Niger is what the the world s population looked like broad base gt high birth rate gt population is growing steep sides gt high death rate vertical sides gt population stability 3 things to think about when looking at population pyramids 1 How big is the base of the pyramid Indicates if the population is increasing or decreasing 2 How big the population over 65 3 Dependency ratio dependents are young and old people ratio of people that are too young or too old to work to people who are working Baby booms are bulges in a population pyramid War losses Specific Population Pyramids Qatar distinct pyramid with many men ages 2555 migrant workers Cambodia shows genocide Iran baby boom in the 19803 during IranIraq war France raised fertility levels by raising incentives for parents longer maternitypaternity leave Summary There are 37 million people living with HIV The 2014 Ebola epidemic hit West Africa especially hard because they were not prepared for an epidemic The shape of a population pyramid gives various kinds information about a population 14 Rubensteain 6473 Wednesday September 30 2015 Population and Health Part 4 Why Do Some Regions Face Health Threats What is epidemiology What is stage 1 of the epidemic transition What is stage 2 of the epidemic transition What is stage 3 of the epidemic transition What is stage 4 of the epidemic transition What characterized the possible stage 5 of the epidemic transition What is one reason for possible stage 5 Epidemic Transition epidemiology the branch of medical science concerned with the incidences distributions and control of diseases that are prevalent among a populations at a special time and are produced by some special causes not generally present in the affected locality Stage 1 Pestilences and Famine High CDR infectious and parasitic diseases accidents attacks by animals humans natural checks most violent state 1 epidemic Black Plague bubonic plague Stage 2 Receding Pandemics Rapidly Declining CDR improved sanitation nutrition and medicine during Industrial Revolution Cholera in urban areas during Industrial Revolution as a result of contaminated water Stage 3 Degenerative Diseases Moderate Declining CDR decrease in death from infectious diseases increase in chronic disorders associated with aging cardiovascular diseases cancer Stage 4 Delayed Degenerative Diseases Low But Increasing CDR cardiovascular diseases and cancers linger but life expectancy higher through medical advances Infectious Diseases Possible Stage 5 infectious diseases thought to have been eradicated controlled return and new ones emerge Reason for Possible Stage 5 Evolution infectious diseases evolve and develop resistance to drugs and insecticides DDTresistant mosquitoes gt reemergence of malaria What is a second reason for possible stage 5 What is a third reason for possible stage 5 What are two important indicators of health in a country How does the provision health care differ in developed countries versus developing countries What are two challenges developing countries face in terms of medical services Wednesday September 30 2015 Reasons for Possible Stage 5 Poverty unsanitary conditions may persist most people can t afford the drugs needed for treatment Tuberculosis in developed countries gt long expensive treatment process Reasons For Possible Stage 5 Increased Connections motor vehicles and air travel increases connections worldwide AIDS diffused from subSaharan Africa through relocation diffusion entered US through NY CA FL Health Care Indicators of Health infant mortality rate IMR annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age compared with total live births reflects a country s healthcare system life expectancy at birth the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at curent mortality levels Provision of Health Care developed countries spend more on health care than developing countries developed countries spend a higher percentage of their wealth on health care than developing countries Medical Services developing countries lack the resources doctors nurses medical facilities to provide medical services with the economies of developing countries slowing governments face a hard choice between reducing benefits and increasing taxes Summary page 73 The epidemic transition has four stages of distinctive diseases There may be a fifth stage to the epidemic transition with a resurgence of infectious diseases The provision of healthcare varies sharply between developing and developed countries 16 Knox amp Marston 7275 7886 Wednesday September 30 2015 AgeSex Pyramids Population Cohorts amp Population Dynamics and Processes What are agesex pyramids How do geographers use agesex pyramids What is a cohort What does a wide base and narrow top tell about a population What does a columnar shape tell about a population What is the dependency ratio How is understanding population composition useful Age Sex Pyramids horizontal bar graph displaying sex and age of a population allow geographers to identify changes in the age and sex composition of populations Population Cohorts cohort a group of individuals who share a common temporal demographic experience does not have to be age Agesex pyramids provide information about the population wide base narrow top gt population has been growing rapidly typical of peripheral countries resources schooling nutrition health are stretched to their limit with so many children will need to create many jobs when these children reach working age population explosion will continue when women reach childbearing age columnar shape gt slow rate of growth dependency ratio measures the economic impact of the young and old on the more economically productive members of the population critical aspect of the population pyramid divide population into youth cohort 015 middle cohort 1564 and oldage cohort 65 The Effect of Population Cohorts understanding population composition tells about future demographics also useful in present marketing baby boom cohort moving up the age pyramid will present problems for the smaller cohort below it What is doubling time What influences infant mortality rate What is medical geography What is health geography What are the greatest threats to global health What are non communicable and zoonotic diseases What might be causing diseases to emerge in new places What is the demographic trap Wednesday September 30 2015 Population Dynamics and Processes note a majority of this information is covered in lecture notes or the reading notes from the other textbook doubling time how long it will take a population to grow to twice its current size infant mortality rate influenced by healthcare system war or political strife medical geography focuses on spatial distribution and extent of disease and illness health care access starts with disease health geography starts with health and focuses on the dynamic relationship between health people and place What are the greatest threats to global health It depends obesity usually in poorer populations leads to diabetes malnutrition noncommunicable disease noninfectious not transmissible zoonotic diseases or zoonoses transmissible from animals to humans climate change may be a cause of diseases emerging in new places as air temperatures rise animals that carry diseases can go northward The Demographic Trap peripheral and semiperipheral countries appearing to be stalled in the transitional phase sharp decline in mortality rates but fertility rates still high Geographers questions The Demographic Transition Model s applicability to peripheral countries 18 How could the education of women impact the demographic transition model Wednesday September 30 2015 Education Women and Demographic Transformation education of women likely to increase pace of transition from Phase 2 to Phase 3 because better educated women have fewer and healthier children Summary Agesex pyramids and population cohorts give information that can be used in the present and to predict the future Global health issues vary depending on location Population experts disagree on the usefulness of the demographic transition model 19