Lesson 1 - Seasons, Time, and Moon
Lesson 1 - Seasons, Time, and Moon ASTR 101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mariac77 on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 101 at University of Washington taught by Dr. Oliver Fraser in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see ASTRONOMY (NW,QSR) in Environmental Science at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
LESSON 1 TUES Oct 6 2015 QUICK GUIDE TO TEXTBOOK How astronomers define particular words in their area of study May have a different definition in other uses Working It Out The mathematics behind a concept Orange icons on the side Reminder of where in the textbook you first saw a concept Vocabulary Alert Concept Connection Astronomy in Action Videos animations and interactive simulations demonstrating N39 AStPOTOUquot important concepts at work Helps visualize them NBbPBSKB Simu39a mquot Available on WW Norton s free Student Website wwnpagesuou2 READING ASTRONOMYNCWS his these articles to practice how to be critical In analyznno realworld Check and practice your understanding here SUMMARY SELFTEST For more sample problems supporting textbook sign up on NortonSmartwork wwnortoncomNSW EXP0 33910quot Shows how to apply the concepts you learned in an interactive way The rst lesson focuses on motions in the sky as well as lab activities that Key notes from Instructor introduce a very special telescope and ask you to compare pictures of the sky with its observations 1 Predict seasonal changes due to the position of the Earth in its orbit Learning goals 2 Relate time of day to position on the spinning Earth 3 Relate lunar phases with the times of day they are visible o Seasonal Changes Activities o Telling Time o Lunar Phases o What is the SkyServer o What do constellations look like in the SkyServer Lab CHAPTER 1 Thinking Like an Astronomer pg219 LG 1 Our place in the universe Viewed as a location and a time Cosmic address Planet star galaxy galaxy group galaxi cluster Earth Sun iSolar System Milky Way Galaxy Light years Distance light travels in 1 year Unit used to measure scale of vast universe LG 2 o How patterns in the sky relate to our daily lives Follows Cosmological principle assumption that similar physical laws that applies here in labs everyday life etc also applies everywhere in the universe at any time LG 3 Our astronomical origins Big Bang theory of how universe began 138 billion years ago 1 Only hydrogen and helium elements existed bits of lithium beryllium boron which then turned into Elements today formed in core of stars long ago 1 Less massive amount of stuff inside atoms Hydrogen combines to form more massive atoms like Carbon etc 2 In its death its materials supplies building block for new stars and planets explanation o Systematic way of testing new ideas or o Usual order of method 1Come up with an Idea or Observation 2Create a hypothesis based on that Start with an observation or idea Suggest a hypothesis LG 4 3Come up with a testable procedure to the SCIentifIc mm a Method faISIfy hypotheSIs prove the Idea prediction wrong 4 If every tests fails to disprove it W mm PM am 8 supports hypothesis becomes a theory hvm39hPWI39i wwsv experiment or hypothesis maize nypmhmiis riv additional additional predictions theories are constantly refined to new ciioosr new one observation and test them datainsights theories can CHANGE 0 Graphs illustrate mathematical patterns Patterns in turn help make accurate predictions LG 5 o Always study 3 key pieces of graph39 Extracting meaning from 39 I a graph 1 Independent Variable xaXIs unit 2 Dependent Variable yaxis unit 3 Trendslope of plotted data how fast it s changing I CHAPTER 2 Patterns in the Sky Motions of Earth pg2045 I 21 Earth Spins on its How Earth s rotation revolution affect celestial motions fr diff places on AXiS earth Apparent daily motion Path each celestial body makes across the sky Imaginary sphere to help visual apparent daily motion CeleSt39al Sphere of celestial objects sun m00n StarS em Imaginary pointlocation in the sky that s directly Zenith above you wherever you are Vocabulary Time of day when our location on earth faces directly Noon towards the sun often notdtrectly over our head Distance in degrees fr equator to either north or south ole Latitude 390 0 measured as angles fr 0 In the equator to 90 In NorthSouth poles View of Earth s Rotation above North pole View of Celestial Motion 9 2391 P922 from NORTH Pole from SOUTH Pole When Viewed from Earth s North Dole planetary orbitsas well as the rotation Counterclockwnse Clockwnse of most piancts and the orbits of most mOOns are counterclockwuso Figure 25 Pg25 Fi ped RrJlattzzn 0f u LC Ol Hrt39nllvfjl l 39 i of Earth North to cstal pulr d1 the zenith 2432 an fibril1 l r Norquot Poir s l rlmttax will 7 um Earth a HDIX lJoon s thll View from Different Latitudes diff locations on earth Parts of Figure 28 Pg27 See the complete picture in the textbook Latitude 30 NORTH Latitude 0 EQUATOR Latitude 30 SOUTH Norl39t 0 estat polo S on t it 3910 on North ll Wll39ti l 39 quot coastal celestial 5 pole poo North 39 30 l celestial BC 39 polc 39 Honon Mormon 39 39 north 0f EAST 0 rise south of EAST sets north of WEST rise EAST sets WEST fWE T Farther NORTH stars bc Earth rotates West to etshsouggijTH Sh I Circumpolar stars stay in East 39 art er t 9 view longer time stars stay In VieW 22 Revolution Around the Sun Leads to Changes During the 2 Visualize how Earth s motion around Sun tilt of Earth s axis relative to plane of orbit determine which stars are visible at night and which seasons are year experienced in diff locations through the year Rotate Object spins about an axis Revolve Object orbits around another object Avera e distance of earth to Sun 150x108 km Astronomical unit AU 9 Vocabulary Used to measure distances In Solar System Path of sun in the sky viewed from earth throughout Ecliptic the year c Earth s orbit lies along the same plane as the Ecliptic Zodiac Constellations that lie along the Ecliptic 1 At the autumnal equinox September 22 the Sun is on the celestial equator June 21 the Sun IS north of the celestial equator 39r x 39l i I At the summer solstice Summer solstice The day when Sun is highest in the sky 0 Rises farthest north of East sets farthest north of West 0 June 21 in the Northern hemisphere Winter solstice The day when Sun is highest in the sky 0 Rises farthest south of East sets farthest south of West a December 21 in the Northern hemisphere The 2 days when Sun lies directly over equator o Entire earth experience equal length of night and day E in x em q 0 es 12 hrs 1 At the winter solstice At the vernal equinox Halfway between summer and Winter SOIStice 233EY LiE39t SZFSSJSmt fftil g f351113 AUtumna eClllJ39nOX 939 t 22 on N Hemlsphere beginning of fall I 39 39 1 I Vernal equmox March 20 on N Hemisphere beginning of spring On September 1 the Sun IS seen in the direction ot Leo as viewed from Earth Earth s Revolution around Sun Figure 29 Pg28 Figure 29 Ab Ca39th orbns tho Sim idferon strum anthem lquotl rm itgh39 suty Also the Sun39s ADD AU tt39tt 39tt39lt against the backdropno of stars Chung2 The rri iiri lt title tracer in tiri irmua path 0 the Sun s cetled the whom Constel dizttlt ttldt g the L39Elgltt form the zed The apparent path that the Sun tollows against the background 01 the stars is called the ecliptic By December 1 Earth has traveted tar evougtt tn its orbit that the Sums soon in the direction of Scorpiiis Earth s Tilted Axis Figure 210 Pg31 Seasons are OPPOSITE in the Northern and Southern hemispheres Fret IJLl Lil mgtrl ncrr SD IV g First day of First day of northern summer northern winter December 21 it all June 21 From the Arctic Circle to the North Pole there are 24 hours of daylight More than halt ot the Northern Hemisphere is in daylight From the Antarctic Circle r m to the South Pole there 3 The rst day of northern Winter l8 are 24 hours of night 0399 the rst day of southern summer o Longer days higher temperatures 0 Sun hiqher in the horizon strikes earth more HOW the aXial tilt Tllted towards the sun directly at hiqher anqle hiqher concentration cause different seasons fl ht on AREA BETWEEN 0 399 EQUATOR amp POLES o Longer nights lower temperatures Tilted awayfr the sun 0 Sun lower in the horizon strikes earth at lower andles lower concentration of light c Sun remains above horizon 24 hrs lonq for the entire part of that year 0 Remains cool bc of low concentration of suanht Tilted towards the sun Tilted awayfr the sun 0 Sun never rises for the entire part of that year o 12 hrs of dav and niqht throu hout the year Latitude 235 N Latitude 235 8 23 Moon s Appearance Changes as it Orbits How the motion of Moon in its orbit around Earth connects to its PHASES Ea h 0 Moon is in Synchronous Rotation Rotates about axis and revolve around Moon s earth about the same period of time a little more than 27 days about a rotation amp revolution month 0 Bc of this sameide of on alwa 3 face Earth f Third quarter When the Moon is here in its orbit Vlanuviipbbcus hnlooks like this VVarnng phases New Moon I Full Moon Phases of 39 i the Moon 39 Zf39f 39 Midnight 39 4 Figure 215 Pg37 i Sunset v9 1H quotEl quotb 1 31 An 3 i r Waxing Waxng 3beth First quarter o Rises as Sun rises cross Meridian at noon sets near Sun sets NewMoon o ViSible in daytime at direction of Sun Not VISIble at nighttime WaXing o growing in size and brilliance o Moon is 14 done from completing its orbit First quarter o Rises at noon cross Meridian at sunset sets at midnight Full Moon o Rises as Sun sets cross Meridian at midniqht sets as Sun rises Waning o becoming smaller o Moon is 34 done from completing its orbit Third quarter o Rises at midnight cross Meridian near sunrise sets at noon 24 Shadows Cause Echses LG 3 How the motion of Moon in its orbit around Earth connects to its ECLIPSES Eclipse 0 When shadow of one body falls on top of another SOLAR Eclipse Sun gt Moon gt Earth 39ll39 Ciliiil39ll Earth Annular LU NAR Eclipse Sun gt Earth gt Moon Partial Annular Why does the moon appear red in Total Lunar Eclipse 0 Illuminated by redlight fr Sun that was bent through Earth s atmosphere Why don t we see eclipses during New Moon and Full Moon Figure 219 Pg39 Vloor39s crbll v loor 0 Eclipse only happen when Moon s orbit aligns exactly along the same plane as Earth s orbit o Often moon s orbit is inclined I above or below Ecliptic Earth s orbit Ecliptic Ce e39stial equator