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Chapter 5 Notes

by: Rachel Notetaker

Chapter 5 Notes HD 101

Rachel Notetaker
Intro to Human Development
Dana Harmon

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About this Document

These are the complete notes from Chapter 5.
Intro to Human Development
Dana Harmon
Class Notes
Chapter 5, Human Development, HD, ch 5
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HD 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dana Harmon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Development in Human Development at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 10/06/15
Notes straight from the book Invitation to The Life Span Second Edition by Kathleen Stassen Berger 0 By age 6 the child s body is proportionately not very different from that of the adult 0 Although the right and left hemispheres of the brain have specialized functions cognitive skill requires both sides of the brain 0 Accidents are the leading cause of childhood death 0 Child maltreatment involves not only physical abuse but failure to meet the child s basic needs Body Changes Nutrition 0 children need far fewer calories per pound of body weight than infants do 0 obesity is a more frequent problem than malnutrition 0 children in low income families are especially vulnerable to obesity because their cultures still guard against undernutrition and their parents may rely on fast foods 0 overfeeding is causing an epidemic of illness associated with obesity such as heart disease and diabetes Nutritional de ciencies 0 many children want foods that are high in fat salt and sugar 0 in poor nations lack of micronutrients is severe but vitamin pills and added supplements do not always help 0 in developed nations fresh food is the best source of nutrition 0 children who war more vegetables and fewer fried foods usually gain bone mass but not fat Improved Motor Skills 0 children develop all their motor skills spontaneously and diligently as they play 0 by age 6 most north americans ride tricycles climb ladders pump their legs on swings and throw catch and kick balls 0 muscle growth brain maturation and guided practice advance every gross motor Skill 0 practice improves dexterity and advance ne motor skills which involve small body movements Allergies and Obsessions 0 between 3 and 8 of all young children have a food allergy usually to a healthy common food 0 cow s milk eggs peanuts tree nuts soy wheat and shell sh are frequent culprits o diagnostic standards and treatments vary Just Rightquot 0 some children insist on eating only certain foods prepared and presented in a particular way 0 this rigidity known as just right phenomenon would be pathological in adults but is normal in children under age 6 0 when 1500 parents were surveyed about their 1 6 year olds their responses indicated that over 75 percent of the 3 year olds the peak age evidenced some just right tendency Oral health 0 too much sugar and too little ber cause tooth decay which affects more than 13 of all young US children 0 severe early decay harms the formation of permanent teeth and the jaw and may affect speech 0 parent childhood experiences and habits income and access create barriers to good dental care for many low income children Environmental Hazards 0 pollutants harm young growing brains and bodies more than older developed ones 0 results from Canadian study suggests some suspected pollutants such as car and truck eXhausts were proven to be harmful to children 0 much more research on pollutants in food and water is needed Injuries 0 mjury controlharm reduction practices that are aimed at anticipating controlling and preventing dangerous activities these practices re ect the belief that accidents are not random and that injuries can be made less harmful if proper controls are in place Primary prevention 0 actions that change overall background conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstance such as injury disease or abuse Secondary prevention 0 actions that avert harm in a hi gh risk situation such as stopping a car before it hits a pedestrian or installing traf c lights at dangerous intersections Tertiary prevention 0 actions such as immediate and effective medical treatment that are taken after an adverse event such as illness injury or abuse occurs and that are aimed at reducing the harm or preventing disability Child Maltreatment intentional harm to or avoidable endangerment of anyone under 18 years of age Brain Development Size 0 by age 2 a child s brain weighs 75 of what it will in adulthood 0 extensive sprouting and then pruning of dendrites has already taken place 0 the brain reaches 90 percent of adult weight by age 6 The Maturing Cortex o maturation of the prefrontal cortex gradually enables children to focus attention and curb impulsiveness 0 before such maturation many children jump from task to task they cannot stay quiet 0 others act in the opposite way in a phenomenon called preservation some children persevere in or stick to one thought or action unable to quit from ages 26 maturation of the prefrontal cortex has several notable bene ts 0 sleep becomes more regular 0 emotions become more nuanced and responsive 0 temper tantrums decrease or subside Speed of Thought 0 myelination the process by Which axons become coated With myelin a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron Left handed child 0 handedness party genetic 0 l in 10 children prefers left hand 0 many cultures support right handedness difference equals de cit error Emotions and the brain 0 Limbic system parts of the brain that are crucial in the expression and regulation of emotions o hypothalamus brain area that responds to the amygdala and the hippocampus to produces hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body 0 prolonged stress may lead to emotional and cognitive impairment Cognitive Development 0 preoperational intelligence is symbolic and self centered Piaget and Vygotsky o Piaget Preoperational Thinking o preoperational intelligence Piaget s term for cognitive development between the ages of 2 and 6 it includes language and imagination which involve symbolic thought but logical operational thinking is not yet possible 0 conservation the principle that the amount of substance remains the same even when its appearance changes Piaget Preoperational Thought 0 Animism involves belief that natural objects and phenomena are alive is related to egocentric reasoning may be involved with rational as well as irrational ideas Piaget described 4 limitations of proportional thought that make logic dif cult until about age 6 0 centration includes characteristic of proportional thought whereby a young child focuses centers on one idea excluding all others may include egocentrism 0 focus on appearance characteristic of preoperational thought whereby a young child ignores all attributes that are not apparent 0 static reasoning characteristic of preoperational thought whereby a young child thinks that nothing changes Whatever is now has always been and always will be 0 Irreversibility characteristic of proportional thought whereby a young child thinks that nothing can be undone A thing cannot be restored to the way it was a before a change occurred Vygotsky Social Learning 0 Vygotsky Social Learning every aspect of children s cognitive development is embedded in the social context 0 Apprentice in thinking someone whose intellectual growth is stimulated and directed by older and more skilled members of society 0 Mentors present challenges offer assistance without taking over add crucial information encourage motivation Guided participation process by which people learn from others who guide their experiences and explorations Zone of proximal development ZPD skills that a person can exercise only with assistance not yet independently Scaffolding temporary support that is tailored to a learner s needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process Overimitation tendency of children to copy an action that is not a relevant part of the behavior to be learned common among 2 to 6 year olds when they imitate adult actions that are irrelevant and inef cient words are the mediator between brain potential and comprehension language advances thinking internal dialogue or private speech social mediation words enable many children between 2 and 6 using one to one correspondence remembering time and dates understanding sequence Brain and Context theory of mind person s theory of what other people might be thinking emergent ability slow to develop but typically beginning in the most children at about age 4 can be seen when young children try to escape punishment by lying child s ability to develop theories correlates with the maturity of the prefrontal cortex and with advances in executive processing 0 context and experience are relevant 0 context and culture matter Language fast mapping the speedy and sometimes imprecise way in which children learn new words by tentatively placing them in mental categories according to their perceived meaning balanced bilingual a person who is uent in two languages not favoring one over the other Words and the Limits of Logic 0 logical extension closely related to fast mapping occurs when children use words to describe other objects in same category Listening Talking and Reading 0 strategies and experiences code focused teaching book reading parent education language enhancement preschool programs Early Childhood Education 0 homes and schools quality matters if the home educational environment is poor a good preschool program aids health cognition and social skills if a family provides extensive learning opportunities and encouragement the quality of the preschool is less crucial 0 child centereddevelopmental programs support child development by encouraging children to follow their own interests rather than adult direction 0 Head Start most Widespread early childhood education program in the US begun in 1965 and funded by the federal government Berger Kathleen Stassen Invitation to The Life Span Second ed New York Worth nd Print


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