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Diet and Health

by: Summer Boone

Diet and Health FDNS 2100

Summer Boone
GPA 4.0
Human Nutrition and Food

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These are my notes from the lecture on 10/6 on Diet and Health.
Human Nutrition and Food
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Summer Boone on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FDNS 2100 at University of Georgia taught by Grossman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition and Food in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 10/06/15
O 9 O O 90 9 Diet and Health Disease Infectious Disease 0 Cause by bacteria viruses and parasites O Transmitted through contact 0 A good diet can help fight infectious diseases but not completely Chronic Disease 0 Irreversible O Arise due to genetic predisposition medical historycurrent conditions lifestyle choices 0 A good diet helps tremendously to helpprevent certain chronic diseases Top 10 leading causes of death in the US Heart disease Cancer Stroke Chronic obstructive lung disease Motor vehicle accidents Diabetes Pneumonia and influenza Suicide Homicide and legal intervention Chronic lung disease 0 Notice how many of these are diseases and how many could be helpedprevented with a healthy diet Malnutrition and infection worsen each other Nutrition and Immunity Immunity is impaired by 0 Not enough protein energy Vitamins A E D B Vitamins Folate Vitamin C Copper Magnesium Selenium 0 Not enough OR too much iron zinc Malnutrition can also result from diseases like cancer HIVAIDS and the treatments for these diseases v Risk Factors Risk Factor suspected contributor to a chronic disease 0 Risk factors have a correlation to diseases they are associated but does NOT mean risk factors cause diseases Risk factors can be genetic environmental or behavioral nutrition 339 Cardiovascular Disease CVD Accounts for roughly 1 million deaths a year in the US O 1 cause of death I Men 31 out of 1000 will get CVD 0 More likely to experience CVD and survive I Women 5 out of 1000 will get CVD 0 More likely to experience CVD and die I Risk Factors 0 Dietary I High in saturated fat and trans fat I Low in vegetables fruits and whole grains I Low in omega3 fatty acids fish oils 0 This opposes clot formation 0 Others I High LDL cholesterol bad cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol good cholesterol 0 High LDL to low HDL is a risk factor 0 Low LDL to high HDL decreases risk I Hypertension high blood pressure 0 Caused by blood vessels constricting to increase oxygen and nutrient delivery 0 Hypertension damages arteries which worsens atherosclerosis clot formation 0 Vice versa Atherosclerosis worsens hypertension hardened arteriesclots decrease blood flow to the kidneys which results in high blood pressure I Smoking I Infections I Obesity I Diabetes I Inactive lifestyle 339 Atherosclerosis I Development soft fatty deposits along the inner walls of arteries 0 Deposits enlarge and become hard plaques O Contributes to inelastic narrow vessel walls I This is how CVD begins I Plaques and Blood Clots O Plaques induce abnormal blood clotting I Thrombus stationary blood clot 0 Can grow until they shut off blood flow to surrounding tissue which leads to tissue death I Embolus thrombus that breaks loose 0 Results in a heart attack or a stroke 339 Blood Pressure Assessment I Systolic Pressure pressure during contraction of the heart I Diastolic Pressure pressure during relaxation of the heart I Ideal resting blood pressure 12080 0 Systolicdiastolic I Borderline normal blood pressure 13085 I High blood pressure 14090 339 Risk Factors for Hypertension I Modifiable risk factors 0 Obesity central adiposity O Atherosclerosis O Insulin resistance I Nonmodifiable 0 Old age 0 Genetic predisposition to hypertension I African Americans have a greater prevalence 339 Nutrition and Hypertension I A healthy diet can help prevent O DASH diet Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension I High in fruits vegetables and lowfat dairy products I Low in sodium and fat I High in calcium potassium magnesium and Vitamin C I Physical activity relieves stress and aids in weight maintenance which helps also 339 Sodium and Hypertension I Sodium plays a role in maintenance of body fluid homeostasis O Regulates extracellular fluid and plasma volume I High sodium diet increases blood pressure hypertension 0 Average sodium intake in the US in 2006 was 3436 mg per day I 50 above the upper level intake I The DGA recommendation is 23000 mg a day I Be mindful of sodium content on food labels 0 Much higher for processed foods 339 Diabetes Mellitus DM I Ride in blood glucose because of inadequate or not enough insulin 0 Impairs the ability to regulate blood glucose normally 0 Insulin clears glucose from blood and delivers it to tissues I Types of DM 0 Type 1 pancreas produces little or no insulin 0 Type 2 pancreas makes insulin but makes so much that cells become resistant to it I Due to a diet too high in glucose containing foods 0 A healthy diet is important for both types but especially type 2 I Complications kidney damage blindness CVD neuropathy 339 Nutrition and Type 2 Diabetes I To manage type 2 diabetes 0 Control total carbohydrate I NOT low carb diet I Control carbs with respect to what medications you are put on I Carbs are essential for body energy just choose what kinds of carbs wisely Adequate fiber Moderate added sugars Low saturated fats and adequate unsaturated oils 0 Adequate but not high protein intake 339 Leading Types of Cancer I Prostate Breast 000 I Lung I Colon I Bladder lymphoma I Skin I Mouth I Kidney I Leukemia I Pancreas 339 Cancer Development I 1 Initiation by a carcinogen gives rise to cancerous changes in previously normal cells 0 Exposure to carcinogen carcinogen enters cell and damages or changes the cell s DNA I 2 Development of cancerous cells I 3 Promotion of cancer by other carcinogens I 4 Cells begin to multiply out of control tumor formation I 5 Cancerous tumor releases cells into bloodstream via blood and lymph metastasis I 6 Disruption of normal body functions 339 Cancer I Cells multiply faster than normal 0 Disrupts normal functioning of organs I Carcinogens cause cancer 339 Nutrition and Cancer I Carcinogens can be food substances 0 Body can detoxify small doses that occur naturally 0 Can t detoxify all carcinogens that develop with food processing I 15 of cancer could be eliminated by preventing obesity I Diets high in fruits and vegetables reduce the risk of cancer 0 Not enough people eat 5 servings of each a day but that number is increasing fortunately I Diets high in dietary fat meat alcohol and excess calories increase the risk of cancer v Phytochemicals and Cancer I Whole grains fruits and vegetables are high in phytochemicals and antioxidants 0 These prevent the initiation and progression of cancer I Cruciferous vegetables broccoli cauliflower etc have been associated with the decrease of colon cancer I Functional foods foods that are high in phytochemicals 0 These promote health and fight diseases v Proper nutrition shields against diseases Video Notes 339 DALY Disability Adjusted Life Year I Your life expectancy based on life choices 0 Smoking accounts for 98 0 Diet accounts for 10 v Individual health influences diet obesity and sedentary lifestyle v Biggest dietary problem in America overconsumption I But not enough carbs fiber and vitamins v Cardiovascular Disease CVD I Heart andor blood vessel problems I 40 of all deaths in the US more than the next 5 leading causes of death combined I 54 of CVD people get heart disease I 18 of CVD people have a stroke I Leads to heart attacks angina and strokes 339 High Blood Fats and Diet I Cholesterol is vital for body functions 0 Transports nutrients and fats through the body with the help of LDL and HDL carriers I LDL bad cholesterol carriers fats from the liver to body cells which causes buildup of fatty plaques 0 More saturated fat more LDL I HDL good cholesterol carries fats from tissues to the liver Consuming the right fats cholesterol and fiber help keep blood fats low and healthy Even a small drop in blood cholesterol helps prevent heart disease Heredity can also effect blood fat concentration medications are used Over 42000000 adults in the US have high cholesterol


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