Mendel; Monohybrid Crosses
Mendel; Monohybrid Crosses Bio 180
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cissy Ding on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 180 at University of Washington taught by Scott Rider Freeman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 129 views. For similar materials see Intro Biology in Biology at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
106 Sunday October 4 2 15 125 PM Chapter 14 The cell theory describes the basic structure of organisms The theory of evolution by natural selection clarifies why species change through time Life is cellular populations evolve The chromosome theory of inheritance o Explained how genetic information is transmitted from one generation to the next Organisms process information Gregor Mendel 1865 did experiments on garden peas to work out rules of inheritance described details of meiosis Chromosome theory of inheritance in 1902 by Walter Sutton and Theodor Boveri linked these two insights GENETICS is the branch of biology that focuses on the inheritance of traits HEREDITY is inheritance or the transmission of traits from parents to offspring TRAIT is any characteristic of an individual ranging from height to the primary structure of a particular membrane protein What are the basic patterns of transmission of traits from parents to offspring o Blending inheritance claimed traits observed in motherfather blend together to form the traits observed in their offspring The offspring is an intermediate between their parents traits O Inheritance of acquired characters claimed traits present in parents are modified through use and passed onto offspring in modified form MODEL ORGANISM is a species that is used for research because it is practical and because conclusions drawn from studying it turn out to apply to many other species as well Mendel39s pea model 0 Individuals were available that differed in easily recognizable traits 0 He could control which parents were mating O Inexpensive and easy to grow from seed Relatively short generation time 0 Produce reasonably large numbers of seeds SELF FERTILIZE a flowers pollen falls on the female reproductive organ of that same flower CROSS or CROSS FERTILIZATION is a type of mating where you remove male reproductive organs from a flower before any pollen forms then later transfer pollen to the target flower female reproductive organ with a brush PHENOTYPE are observable traits of an individual such as shape of a pea seed or the eye color of a person PURE LINE consists of individuals that produce offspring identical to themselves when they are self pollinated or crossed to another member of the pure line population GENE is a hereditary factor that influences a particular trait 0 B10 180 Page 1 ALLELE a particular form of a gene GENOTYPE is a listing of the alleles in an individual HOMOZYGOUS vs HETEROZYGOUS having two of the same allele vs having two different alleles HYBRID offspring from crosses between homozygous parents with different genotypes DOMINANT ALLELE is an allele that produces its phenotype in heterozygous and homozygous form RECESSIVE ALLELE is an allele that produces its phenotype only in homozygous form RECIPROCAL CROSS a cross in which the phenotypes of the male and female are reversed compared with a prior cross TESTCROSS a cross between a homozygous recessive individual and an individual with the dominant phenotype but an unknown genotype XLINKED gene located on X chromosome YLINKED gene located on Y chromosome AUTOSOMAL gene located on any non sex chromosome or a trait determined by an autosomal gene Important research strategy in biology start with a simple situation 0 Crossing pure lines that different in one trait PARENTAL GENERATION are the adults in initial experimental cross F1 GENERATION are the progeny or offspring MONOHYBRID CROSS mating between parents that each carry two different genetic determinants for the same trait Individuals with dominant phenotype do not necessarily have higher fitness than those with recessive phenotype Nor are genetic determinants associated with a dominant phenotype necessarily more common than recessive ones In genetics recessive and dominant only identify which phenotype is observed in individuals carrying two different genetic determinants for a given trait PARTICU LATE INHERITANCE maintained that hereditary determinants for traits do not blend or become modified Hereditary determinants maintain integrity from generation to generation they act as discrete entities or particles Explanation of reappearance of recessive phenotype and 31 ratio 0 Two members of each gene must segregate separate into different gamete cells during the formation of eggs and sperm PRINCIPLE OF SEGREGATION each gamete contains one allele of each gene Punnett square Predicting the genotypes and phenotypes of different crosses 0 Write each of the unique gamete genotypes produced by one parent in a horizontal row along the top of the diagram 0 Write each of the unique gamete genotypes produced by the other parent in a vertical column down the left side of the diagram 0 Create a table under the horizontal row of gametes and to the right of the vertical column of gametes 0 Fill in table with entries for parental gamete genotypes that are written at top and left side This step represents fertilization and produces the offspring genotypes O Tally the proportions of ratios of each offspring genotype and B10 180 Page 2 phenotype 0 Genetic model refers to a set of hypotheses that explains how a particular trait is inherited B10 180 Page 3