Notes Week 2
Notes Week 2 Psych 220
Popular in Psychology and Culture
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by jewellog on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 220 at James Madison University taught by Dr Matthew Lee in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Psychology and Culture in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
Reviews for Notes Week 2
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/06/15
090715 Monday September W 21115 1115 Culture and Communication Implicit and explicit communication 0 High context culture in many east asian languages any one phrase can mean several different things because of the level of context of the relationship between the people 0 Is it okay to part here 0 Low context culture say what you mean or have specifically use a particular word I German tho Cultural Identities SelfConcept or selfschema the ideas you have about yourself in context Incremental theory you can change and grow you can become better at one thing or another internal locus of control Entity theory its fixed you will never get better at anything you are born that way external locus of control Personality Theory five dimensions of personality that can be applied to most cultures you can score higher or lower on any one of these 0 Openness to Experience do a lot of stuff have adventures O Conscientiousness disciplined orderly or not sloppy o Extraversion level of outgoingness or sociability O Agreeableness cooperative friendly 0 Neuroticism psychological distress This explains so many cultures around the world but there are some twists like a sixth dimension in China the Philippines or Poland 0 Interpersonal Obligation thinking of everyone else around you this is assumed China 0 Absence of Emotion collectivist culture it is important to show lack of anger lack of fear The Philippines 0 Honesty they think about honesty a lot Poland How Does SelfConcept Form Social Identity theory each group that you are part of will hold some part of your identity Female Scottish Short blah blah blah there may be some parts of you that are combined between two identities There may be some parts that you don39t think about so much until there is a context like feeling American when you are outside of the country What is influencing you to think about yourself a certain way what does it mean to be American Explanations for Self Across Culture Women and collectivist cultures talk about communality Scottish Loved Men and individualist cultures talk about themselves with agency being dominant assertive Dancer Smart People in US culture write positive adjectives Short funny quirky loved Many people in Kenya speak both English and Swahili some people are exposed to British socialization and some who aren39t exposed to it at all 0 The Kenyan exposed to the British systems will use more individualistic terms he who was not talked more about being collectivist We talk about things that are more individual and make us different Each country will differ in how individualistic it is versus collectivist You can tell a lot about what is important to someone based on their statements Locus of Control the extent to which you believe you have control over your life 0 Internal I am smart I worked hard to get to college 0 External I39m smart because I was born that way I got in to college because I was lucky Religious countries are more likely to be external Psych and Culture Page 1 Value of Self Consistency whether or not you display consistent traits 0 Western culture cares more about displaying consistent traits over time 0 Eastern cultures care much less about displaying consistent traits O E x P B Cognitive Balance thoughts and behaviors should align Heider 1959 Cognitive Dissonance what happens when people are faced with two or more thoughts or behaviors that are not aligned Festinger 1957 Recycling is a good idea but do you always put stuff in recycling Independent versus Interdependent view of self 0 The collectivist person may describe themselves in terms of relationships 0 The individualist person may describe themselves in terms of personal traits we have relationships but we aren39t relationships Analytic vs Holistic thought 0 Eastern cultures tend to think more holistically I objects are never independent there will always be a relationship or context 0 Individualist cultures tend to think more Analytically I Objects or people are independent and are part of some logical order Psych and Culture Page 2 090915 Tuesday September 533 2 15 1144 Socialization and Development in Culture Socialization the process by which an individual becomes a member ofa culture 0 Enculturation being socialized to the culture you are born and raised in O Acculturation taking on the cultures and norms of another culture maybe my moving there or studying it 0 Any one person could go through both processes 0 This could apply to religion or state or university Socializing agents things that socialize you 0 First socialization parents immediate family 0 Second socialization media books school laws Socializing requires language ability blooming and pruning sensitive period 0 Noam Chomsky39s language acquisition device something about us as kids makes us able to take in language as rapidly as we do learning and producing Feral children studies they have passed the sensitive period and can no longer develop language Most likely all humans from all cultures are able to hear all phonemes until we reach a certain period when we only hear certain phonemes related to the language that is spoken around us and we listen to those only and quotprunequot the neurons that are receptive to all of them Kids who were born in Japan and moved to the US at a young age and by age 9 they felt fully Americanized Age 15 is another key age if you move from your home country before this age you will adapt to the new one just fine if it is after 15 then you will not adapt Bedroom thing In the US we use the quotSacred couplequot version where the mother and father get their own room In India they use a principle called quotprotection of the youngquot where they prioritize the needs ofthe youngest child Both cultures use incest avoidance they wouldn t put the 14 year old and the 15 year old in the same room Human Development Infancy In western culture we play with toys In eastern cultures we played with other people The words we use first tend to be different in collectivist cultures it tends to be a verb or relationship in individualist cultures it tends to be a noun Parenting Authoritarian restrictive punitive uses the most spanking generally more common in lower SES cultures or in collectivist cultures more patriarchal Authoritative parents encourage independence but they still have a final say grow and learn to be independent learn to negotiate Neglectful psychologically or physically neglectful poor housing and eating common in poorer culture Permissive more common in richer cultures parents give all to child In general it is better for both parents display the same parenting style Attachment Bond between child and caregiver Secure feel curious and safe around parents may cry when they leave but is happy when they come back Avoidant child is not distressed when caregiver leaves common in North Germany love is shown differently foreign in Japan or West Africa AnxiousAmbivalent insecure or secure they show a mixed pattern Israeli Kibbutz the families leave for the farm early in the day and don39t spend time socializing they may show a closer bond with another caregiver Gender Socialization Starts at birth with name color of room clothes you wear Some ofthis is nature and nurture Your physical characteristics like being quotprettyquot or quotstrongquot Girls tend to be part of more traditional activities and boys tend to be part of more masculine activities Media Girls who watch lots of TV are more likely to think they are too fat Music preferences Psych and Culture Page 1 Ask how to cite online article Double Spaced Daughter 11 year old 15 year old Mom Dad Dad 8 Year old 15 year old 11 year old 8 year old Mom 3 year old 14 year old O O O 0 Pop more likely to abuse alcohol US Country resilience patriotism US alternativeIndy uniqueness US Rap weed EVicodin purple syrup US Children are exposed to 69 hours per day of electronic media this number is increasing 0 95 of US college students are on Facebook 88 of the US has regular access to the internet 43 of the world has regular access to the internet People in western culture are more likely to have access to cell phones You are socializing yourself to different norms depending on what you have access to Psych and Culture Page 2 DG9C3TGHGMNB and DHCWQCWZZNPQ Friday September 11 2 15 1123 Research Methods Epistemology the study of knowledge Approaches o Emic coming from within one39s own culture 0 Etic quotas if an observer were commenting or imposing on the target culturequot Learn about the cultures first 0 Scandinavian study of Indian family dinners O Greenfield39s Zinacantecan study A good method will have Validity strength and accuracy of the results Reliability consistency of the method andor results Generalizability can it be applied to other peoplecircumstances Independent Variables Dependent Variables Operational Definition quantification of the variable Methods and Measures Physiological measures testosterone blood saliva Field Experiments going to the place of interest Ethnography living with the culture so people can open up to you more Archival Studies looking at old data for information Survey most common in US Situation Sampling asking people from different groups about some dependent variable and get a huge list then find a new group from each background and have them rate from the most of one thing to the least of one thing Cultural priming a researcher will expose someone to a certain culture to see what kind of effect it has one people being exposed to hiphop music and then being more stereotypical of black men Content analysis looking for stories and texts and contexts comparing northern and southern story ads tv shows commercials Identical twin studies comparing split twins between cultures Case studies n 1 The approach you use will change which of these you might want to try Culture of Honor Example They triangulated their methods they used several different methods above to try to generalize their results and it worked those from the south believe in a culture of honor Portable resources they are more likely to have resources that can be easily stolen Wrote letters from felons who had just gotten out ofjail manslaughter for dishonor or stealing a car in the south you were more likely to get called back for the former than the latter Concerns Account for the macrosystem larger culture and chronosystem time period Must be careful in how you ask questions to making sure you are being accurate different cultures have different ways to measure time Methodological equivalence the method needs to make sense between different cultures Item bias quotwhat is a traffic lightquot Cultural bias there could be classcentrism assuming that the person being surveyed has a lot of education the SAT had items that were only used in upperclass circles Backtranslation translating it from your language into another then back into yours Referencegroup effects objective vs subjective measure Deprivation effect people who don t have as many liberties or as much money and that could affect their responses being happy or sad in a given context Psych and Culture Page 1 Participant biases O Moderacy bias vs extremity bias the former will score closer to the middle on a rating scale whereas the latter will score closer to the extremes O Acquiescence bias perpetually agreeing or disagree with everything Read about Unpacking Psych and Culture Page 2
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'