Psych and Culture Notes Week 3
Psych and Culture Notes Week 3 Psych 220
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by jewellog on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 220 at James Madison University taught by Dr Matthew Lee in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Psychology and Culture in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
091415 Monday September 14 2015 1115 How do People Think When you see someone you can make very quick observations and conclusions about who they are with very little information a schema about them It isn39t one thing about a person but a collection of things that they represent that may make us uncomfortable Social Cognition how we think about each other and how we understand one another 0 Stereotyping Prejudice overgeneralized oversimplified beliefs used to categorize a group of people 0 Attributions How we explain their situation based on what we see 0 Attitudes feelings or behaviors towards or against someone or some thing These are Schemas about the world a basic building block for how we see the world Cultural Styles of Thinking Holistic vs Analytic Thinking O Analytic everything is separate 0 Holistic everything is related Those from Hong Kong culture saw the relationship between all of the fish as swimming together or that there was some other context Those from American culture saw a leader fish and the rest as followers DispositionalAttributions o Explaining the situation because of the person39s personality sally did well because she is smart SituationalAttributions o Explaining the situation based on the context someone did something funny external to the subjects Flexible o More ways to interpret a situation generally those from higher income background because they have been socialized with more perspectives Inflexible Schemas 0 Fewer ways to interpret a situation generally those from lower income backgrounds because they have been socialized with fewer perspectives Any one situations can mean very different things Any one person could have flexible or inflexible schemas about one thing or another based on their experience with that thing Field Dependence vs field Independence o The extent to which objects and their backgrounds are perceived as separate Wine bottle test women were more likely to think field dependently and not account for gravity Stereotyping Errors There are many errors in thinking that can harm your understanding of people from other cultures At times stereotypes are at the root Identities that overlap also have overlapping stereotypes Some of these are based on extreme groups or are very broad Frequently based on things that aren39t true Assimilation Bias Using an existing schema to incorporate new information Schema Latino39s are lazy 0 See a Latino who is watching TV and it confirms your stereotype Availability Bias Basing a Judgement on how quickly it comes to mind But if you were think about the UK or France maybe it was because of the availability Anchoring Bias In the year 2000 there were more than 750000 African American men in prison What racial group in the US compromises the largest number of people in poverty It is the INCORRECT use of a statistic to make a prediction Or when you weight yourjudgement on too much of one thing He is both Asian and Black but we put more weight on the color of his skin Confirmation Bias The tendency to seek evidence and reach conclusions consistent with pre existing beliefs The belief perseverance effect People tend to ignore information about something to keep their beliefs Representativeness Bias Using a highly salient representative for all others who could fit the category Alternate Don t do it Fundamental Attribution Error Someone over emphasizes personality characteristics as opposed to the situation They assume that that new stereotype is true of other people who fit the category People get so locked in to a situation that they don39t see the context It can be easier to come up with dispositional attributions SelfFulfilling Prophecy When preconceived notions about a person leads the target to adopt those attributes To earn my bid to join a sorority I have to fit the stereotype and dress and behave a certain way that is now how I normally behave Psych and Culture Page 1 He played a great prank on Dwight Something happened that made him laugh Something happened that made her laugh maybe the same thing Guess who isn39t as sexist DD Stereotype about things that are unusual Being Wiccan F55555555555555555555445 091615 Wednesday September 16 21115 1119 Cognitive Dissonance Naive Dialecticism acceptance of tolerance of contradiction 0 More common in Asian cultures 0 The story of the farmer who fell off his horse 0 Its good only ablebodied people went to war quotSmoking correlates with lower more healthy BMI rangesquot quotSmoking correlates with obesity and unhealthy BMI scoresquot 0 Genetics could be a factor 0 You could have other bad habits Psych and Culture Page 1