Notes Week 4
Notes Week 4 Psych 220
Popular in Psychology and Culture
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by jewellog on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 220 at James Madison University taught by Dr Matthew Lee in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Psychology and Culture in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
Reviews for Notes Week 4
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/06/15
090715 Monday September W 21115 1115 Culture and Communication Implicit and explicit communication 0 High context culture in many east asian languages any one phrase can mean several different things because of the level of context of the relationship between the people 0 Is it okay to part here 0 Low context culture say what you mean or have specifically use a particular word I German tho Cultural Identities SelfConcept or selfschema the ideas you have about yourself in context Incremental theory you can change and grow you can become better at one thing or another internal locus of control Entity theory its fixed you will never get better at anything you are born that way external locus of control Personality Theory five dimensions of personality that can be applied to most cultures you can score higher or lower on any one of these 0 Openness to Experience do a lot of stuff have adventures O Conscientiousness disciplined orderly or not sloppy o Extraversion level of outgoingness or sociability O Agreeableness cooperative friendly 0 Neuroticism psychological distress This explains so many cultures around the world but there are some twists like a sixth dimension in China the Philippines or Poland 0 Interpersonal Obligation thinking of everyone else around you this is assumed China 0 Absence of Emotion collectivist culture it is important to show lack of anger lack of fear The Philippines 0 Honesty they think about honesty a lot Poland How Does SelfConcept Form Social Identity theory each group that you are part of will hold some part of your identity Female Scottish Short blah blah blah there may be some parts of you that are combined between two identities There may be some parts that you don39t think about so much until there is a context like feeling American when you are outside of the country What is influencing you to think about yourself a certain way what does it mean to be American Explanations for Self Across Culture Women and collectivist cultures talk about communality Scottish Loved Men and individualist cultures talk about themselves with agency being dominant assertive Dancer Smart People in US culture write positive adjectives Short funny quirky loved Many people in Kenya speak both English and Swahili some people are exposed to British socialization and some who aren39t exposed to it at all 0 The Kenyan exposed to the British systems will use more individualistic terms he who was not talked more about being collectivist We talk about things that are more individual and make us different Each country will differ in how individualistic it is versus collectivist You can tell a lot about what is important to someone based on their statements Locus of Control the extent to which you believe you have control over your life 0 Internal I am smart I worked hard to get to college 0 External I39m smart because I was born that way I got in to college because I was lucky Religious countries are more likely to be external Psych and Culture Page 1 Value of Self Consistency whether or not you display consistent traits 0 Western culture cares more about displaying consistent traits over time 0 Eastern cultures care much less about displaying consistent traits O E x P B Cognitive Balance thoughts and behaviors should align Heider 1959 Cognitive Dissonance what happens when people are faced with two or more thoughts or behaviors that are not aligned Festinger 1957 Recycling is a good idea but do you always put stuff in recycling Independent versus Interdependent view of self 0 The collectivist person may describe themselves in terms of relationships 0 The individualist person may describe themselves in terms of personal traits we have relationships but we aren39t relationships Analytic vs Holistic thought 0 Eastern cultures tend to think more holistically I objects are never independent there will always be a relationship or context 0 Individualist cultures tend to think more Analytically I Objects or people are independent and are part of some logical order Psych and Culture Page 2 090915 Tuesday September 533 2 15 1144 Socialization and Development in Culture Socialization the process by which an individual becomes a member ofa culture 0 Enculturation being socialized to the culture you are born and raised in O Acculturation taking on the cultures and norms of another culture maybe my moving there or studying it 0 Any one person could go through both processes 0 This could apply to religion or state or university Socializing agents things that socialize you 0 First socialization parents immediate family 0 Second socialization media books school laws Socializing requires language ability blooming and pruning sensitive period 0 Noam Chomsky39s language acquisition device something about us as kids makes us able to take in language as rapidly as we do learning and producing Feral children studies they have passed the sensitive period and can no longer develop language Most likely all humans from all cultures are able to hear all phonemes until we reach a certain period when we only hear certain phonemes related to the language that is spoken around us and we listen to those only and quotprunequot the neurons that are receptive to all of them Kids who were born in Japan and moved to the US at a young age and by age 9 they felt fully Americanized Age 15 is another key age if you move from your home country before this age you will adapt to the new one just fine if it is after 15 then you will not adapt Bedroom thing In the US we use the quotSacred couplequot version where the mother and father get their own room In India they use a principle called quotprotection of the youngquot where they prioritize the needs ofthe youngest child Both cultures use incest avoidance they wouldn t put the 14 year old and the 15 year old in the same room Human Development Infancy In western culture we play with toys In eastern cultures we played with other people The words we use first tend to be different in collectivist cultures it tends to be a verb or relationship in individualist cultures it tends to be a noun Parenting Authoritarian restrictive punitive uses the most spanking generally more common in lower SES cultures or in collectivist cultures more patriarchal Authoritative parents encourage independence but they still have a final say grow and learn to be independent learn to negotiate Neglectful psychologically or physically neglectful poor housing and eating common in poorer culture Permissive more common in richer cultures parents give all to child In general it is better for both parents display the same parenting style Attachment Bond between child and caregiver Secure feel curious and safe around parents may cry when they leave but is happy when they come back Avoidant child is not distressed when caregiver leaves common in North Germany love is shown differently foreign in Japan or West Africa AnxiousAmbivalent insecure or secure they show a mixed pattern Israeli Kibbutz the families leave for the farm early in the day and don39t spend time socializing they may show a closer bond with another caregiver Gender Socialization Starts at birth with name color of room clothes you wear Some ofthis is nature and nurture Your physical characteristics like being quotprettyquot or quotstrongquot Girls tend to be part of more traditional activities and boys tend to be part of more masculine activities Media Girls who watch lots of TV are more likely to think they are too fat Music preferences Psych and Culture Page 1 Ask how to cite online article Double Spaced Daughter 11 year old 15 year old Mom Dad Dad 8 Year old 15 year old 11 year old 8 year old Mom 3 year old 14 year old O O O 0 Pop more likely to abuse alcohol US Country resilience patriotism US alternativeIndy uniqueness US Rap weed EVicodin purple syrup US Children are exposed to 69 hours per day of electronic media this number is increasing 0 95 of US college students are on Facebook 88 of the US has regular access to the internet 43 of the world has regular access to the internet People in western culture are more likely to have access to cell phones You are socializing yourself to different norms depending on what you have access to Psych and Culture Page 2 092315 Wednesday September 23 21115 1117 Nationality Nationality legal status of belonging to a particular geographic or cultural state 193 Nationalities in the world Citizenship status Real Taiwan Palestine Kosovo Somaliland Transdniester Nationality can change based on historical or political forces Some people don39t get formal recognition from the countries they live in O The Roma people Romany quotGypsyquot 0 They are migratory but they aren39t technically citizens o Bedouins some people don39t see nation lines as we do 0 Tuareg Kenya was at one point a colony of the British 0 The Nubians were from Sudan who were fighting for the British but they lost so the British left and the Nubians were left behind but are oppressed and not recognized The Dalit caste they are the Untouchables they aren39t recognized and they are widely oppressed in South Asia UN Guidelines say that you can use the term quotStatelessquot to describe people who have no formal recognition from the nation they live in O Kurdistan they have over 28 Million people but no country as their own There are countries that are listed as being at risk for committing genocide or secession basically forcing people to be stripped of their rights Bicultural or Multicultural people who have two or more cultural influences impacting their lives Blending engaging in psychological tendencies from more than one culture 0 Multiple Selves 0 Greater creativity ability to discriminate stimuli FrameSwitching o Gain privilege from associating with gt 1 culture 0 Selfesteem personality also often coincides with frameswitching Acculturation Pos39t39ve Acculturation curve A 0 People are really excited initially 0 People freak out because of the cultural differences 0 People slowly start to adjust Sojourner when you are only there temporarily and you don39t adapt much Reverse culture shock 0 Me with Scotland and tea Negat39ve Cultural Distance how similar or dissimilar your country is to the new country 0 Cultural distance is low between here and Canada Honeymoon Crisis of Culture Shock Adjustment 0 Cultural distance is high between here and India Factors that help with acculturation include how 0 Geographical closeness 0 Language 0 Cultural fitPersonality match I German culture running like clockwork Appearances what do you look like Need for cognitive closure they find it hard to adjust because they want specific answers to questions they have to know all of the rules they are less willing to just jump in John Berry Model There are four ways to adjust to a new culture Attitudes toward host culture No Culture shock in scotland McDonalds in france Attitudes towards quot39 Integration Separation heritage Assimilation Marginalization culture Of these four the best tends to be those who are integrated because they get to keep both of their cultural traditions There are plenty of positive aspects of acculturation This depends on where you move to and where you are coming from New Freedom Opportunity Selfesteem may improve for some people Negative Aspects Acculturative stress 0 Likelihood of depression anxiety substance abuse 0 There may be healthy new norms 0 Japanese immigrants died earlier 0 Latino immigrants may disrespect authority figures Psych and Culture Page 1 Exposure to stereotypes and discrimination O Discrimination the quothair queue lawquot I It was illegal to have hair this way which was common for the Chinese 0 Native American mascot study I When white students look at Native American mascots they report more negative feelings towards Native Americans 0 Stereotype threat I When someone feels worried that they will live up to a stereotype associated with their race or gender This doesn39tjust apply to moving from one country to another this could also apply to sex changes religion moving from one culture to another Psych and Culture Page 2