Notes Week 4
Notes Week 4 Psych 220
Popular in Psychology and Culture
Popular in Psychlogy
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by jewellog on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 220 at James Madison University taught by Dr Matthew Lee in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Psychology and Culture in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
090715 Monday September W 21115 1115 Culture and Communication Implicit and explicit communication 0 High context culture in many east asian languages any one phrase can mean several different things because of the level of context of the relationship between the people 0 Is it okay to part here 0 Low context culture say what you mean or have specifically use a particular word I German tho Cultural Identities SelfConcept or selfschema the ideas you have about yourself in context Incremental theory you can change and grow you can become better at one thing or another internal locus of control Entity theory its fixed you will never get better at anything you are born that way external locus of control Personality Theory five dimensions of personality that can be applied to most cultures you can score higher or lower on any one of these 0 Openness to Experience do a lot of stuff have adventures O Conscientiousness disciplined orderly or not sloppy o Extraversion level of outgoingness or sociability O Agreeableness cooperative friendly 0 Neuroticism psychological distress This explains so many cultures around the world but there are some twists like a sixth dimension in China the Philippines or Poland 0 Interpersonal Obligation thinking of everyone else around you this is assumed China 0 Absence of Emotion collectivist culture it is important to show lack of anger lack of fear The Philippines 0 Honesty they think about honesty a lot Poland How Does SelfConcept Form Social Identity theory each group that you are part of will hold some part of your identity Female Scottish Short blah blah blah there may be some parts of you that are combined between two identities There may be some parts that you don39t think about so much until there is a context like feeling American when you are outside of the country What is influencing you to think about yourself a certain way what does it mean to be American Explanations for Self Across Culture Women and collectivist cultures talk about communality Scottish Loved Men and individualist cultures talk about themselves with agency being dominant assertive Dancer Smart People in US culture write positive adjectives Short funny quirky loved Many people in Kenya speak both English and Swahili some people are exposed to British socialization and some who aren39t exposed to it at all 0 The Kenyan exposed to the British systems will use more individualistic terms he who was not talked more about being collectivist We talk about things that are more individual and make us different Each country will differ in how individualistic it is versus collectivist You can tell a lot about what is important to someone based on their statements Locus of Control the extent to which you believe you have control over your life 0 Internal I am smart I worked hard to get to college 0 External I39m smart because I was born that way I got in to college because I was lucky Religious countries are more likely to be external Psych and Culture Page 1 Value of Self Consistency whether or not you display consistent traits 0 Western culture cares more about displaying consistent traits over time 0 Eastern cultures care much less about displaying consistent traits O E x P B Cognitive Balance thoughts and behaviors should align Heider 1959 Cognitive Dissonance what happens when people are faced with two or more thoughts or behaviors that are not aligned Festinger 1957 Recycling is a good idea but do you always put stuff in recycling Independent versus Interdependent view of self 0 The collectivist person may describe themselves in terms of relationships 0 The individualist person may describe themselves in terms of personal traits we have relationships but we aren39t relationships Analytic vs Holistic thought 0 Eastern cultures tend to think more holistically I objects are never independent there will always be a relationship or context 0 Individualist cultures tend to think more Analytically I Objects or people are independent and are part of some logical order Psych and Culture Page 2 DG9C3TGHGMNB and DHCWQCWZZNPQ Friday September 11 2 15 1123 Research Methods Epistemology the study of knowledge Approaches o Emic coming from within one39s own culture 0 Etic quotas if an observer were commenting or imposing on the target culturequot Learn about the cultures first 0 Scandinavian study of Indian family dinners O Greenfield39s Zinacantecan study A good method will have Validity strength and accuracy of the results Reliability consistency of the method andor results Generalizability can it be applied to other peoplecircumstances Independent Variables Dependent Variables Operational Definition quantification of the variable Methods and Measures Physiological measures testosterone blood saliva Field Experiments going to the place of interest Ethnography living with the culture so people can open up to you more Archival Studies looking at old data for information Survey most common in US Situation Sampling asking people from different groups about some dependent variable and get a huge list then find a new group from each background and have them rate from the most of one thing to the least of one thing Cultural priming a researcher will expose someone to a certain culture to see what kind of effect it has one people being exposed to hiphop music and then being more stereotypical of black men Content analysis looking for stories and texts and contexts comparing northern and southern story ads tv shows commercials Identical twin studies comparing split twins between cultures Case studies n 1 The approach you use will change which of these you might want to try Culture of Honor Example They triangulated their methods they used several different methods above to try to generalize their results and it worked those from the south believe in a culture of honor Portable resources they are more likely to have resources that can be easily stolen Wrote letters from felons who had just gotten out ofjail manslaughter for dishonor or stealing a car in the south you were more likely to get called back for the former than the latter Concerns Account for the macrosystem larger culture and chronosystem time period Must be careful in how you ask questions to making sure you are being accurate different cultures have different ways to measure time Methodological equivalence the method needs to make sense between different cultures Item bias quotwhat is a traffic lightquot Cultural bias there could be classcentrism assuming that the person being surveyed has a lot of education the SAT had items that were only used in upperclass circles Backtranslation translating it from your language into another then back into yours Referencegroup effects objective vs subjective measure Deprivation effect people who don t have as many liberties or as much money and that could affect their responses being happy or sad in a given context Psych and Culture Page 1 Participant biases O Moderacy bias vs extremity bias the former will score closer to the middle on a rating scale whereas the latter will score closer to the extremes O Acquiescence bias perpetually agreeing or disagree with everything Read about Unpacking Psych and Culture Page 2 091415 Monday September 14 2015 1115 How do People Think When you see someone you can make very quick observations and conclusions about who they are with very little information a schema about them It isn39t one thing about a person but a collection of things that they represent that may make us uncomfortable Social Cognition how we think about each other and how we understand one another 0 Stereotyping Prejudice overgeneralized oversimplified beliefs used to categorize a group of people 0 Attributions How we explain their situation based on what we see 0 Attitudes feelings or behaviors towards or against someone or some thing These are Schemas about the world a basic building block for how we see the world Cultural Styles of Thinking Holistic vs Analytic Thinking O Analytic everything is separate 0 Holistic everything is related Those from Hong Kong culture saw the relationship between all of the fish as swimming together or that there was some other context Those from American culture saw a leader fish and the rest as followers DispositionalAttributions o Explaining the situation because of the person39s personality sally did well because she is smart SituationalAttributions o Explaining the situation based on the context someone did something funny external to the subjects Flexible o More ways to interpret a situation generally those from higher income background because they have been socialized with more perspectives Inflexible Schemas 0 Fewer ways to interpret a situation generally those from lower income backgrounds because they have been socialized with fewer perspectives Any one situations can mean very different things Any one person could have flexible or inflexible schemas about one thing or another based on their experience with that thing Field Dependence vs field Independence o The extent to which objects and their backgrounds are perceived as separate Wine bottle test women were more likely to think field dependently and not account for gravity Stereotyping Errors There are many errors in thinking that can harm your understanding of people from other cultures At times stereotypes are at the root Identities that overlap also have overlapping stereotypes Some of these are based on extreme groups or are very broad Frequently based on things that aren39t true Assimilation Bias Using an existing schema to incorporate new information Schema Latino39s are lazy 0 See a Latino who is watching TV and it confirms your stereotype Availability Bias Basing a Judgement on how quickly it comes to mind But if you were think about the UK or France maybe it was because of the availability Anchoring Bias In the year 2000 there were more than 750000 African American men in prison What racial group in the US compromises the largest number of people in poverty It is the INCORRECT use of a statistic to make a prediction Or when you weight yourjudgement on too much of one thing He is both Asian and Black but we put more weight on the color of his skin Confirmation Bias The tendency to seek evidence and reach conclusions consistent with pre existing beliefs The belief perseverance effect People tend to ignore information about something to keep their beliefs Representativeness Bias Using a highly salient representative for all others who could fit the category Alternate Don t do it Fundamental Attribution Error Someone over emphasizes personality characteristics as opposed to the situation They assume that that new stereotype is true of other people who fit the category People get so locked in to a situation that they don39t see the context It can be easier to come up with dispositional attributions SelfFulfilling Prophecy When preconceived notions about a person leads the target to adopt those attributes To earn my bid to join a sorority I have to fit the stereotype and dress and behave a certain way that is now how I normally behave Psych and Culture Page 1 He played a great prank on Dwight Something happened that made him laugh Something happened that made her laugh maybe the same thing Guess who isn39t as sexist DD Stereotype about things that are unusual Being Wiccan F55555555555555555555445 091615 Wednesday September 16 21115 1119 Cognitive Dissonance Naive Dialecticism acceptance of tolerance of contradiction 0 More common in Asian cultures 0 The story of the farmer who fell off his horse 0 Its good only ablebodied people went to war quotSmoking correlates with lower more healthy BMI rangesquot quotSmoking correlates with obesity and unhealthy BMI scoresquot 0 Genetics could be a factor 0 You could have other bad habits Psych and Culture Page 1 092115 Monday September 21 21115 1117 Power and Privilegg In a multicultural democratic society who has more power and privilege What happens psychologically when different groups have different amounts of power 0 Question about female prime minister and sexual assault The Dominant cultural group can be different looking based on what demographic you are looking at When you can divide power based on group you are creating a social stratification 0 Men over women 0 White people over black people 0 The wealthy over the poor It is only recently that people are starting to talk about how it might be men that are causing the problem not women Positionality a measure of your place in social stratification 0 Those who are higher have more cultural privileges social or psychological advantages from being a member of a dominant group Cultural deficit theory you are on top and you believe that it is the fault of the minority that they are like that and have less of an ability to move up It is easy to have a high positionality and tell people below you to work harder Attained privilege If you come from a lower positionality and you worked your way to the top 0 It is easier to tell other people to do the same thing that you did Ascribed Privilege any privilege that people give you based on demographics or assumptions 0 If you are white and thus people assume you are educated O The negative thing can be the same Distributed differently You can use it to uphold the dominant culture 0 Jim Crow Oppress the subordinate cultures 0 Jim Crow Or you could level the playing field Psychological Outcomes SES and health outcomes Psychological superiority internalized privilage 0 You have always been at the top so you deserve better treatment Psychological inferiority internalized opression 0 When you feel helpless about moving up those are the top are right Five Faces of Oppression Marginalization people being separated and treated poorly due to certain factors you have less of a say in society Exploitation members of a dominant group exploit the resources of the minority like slave labor or paying a lower wage Powerlessness when people on the bottom experience internalized oppression they can39t do anything to change the system learned helplessness accommodations and what not Cultural Imperialism dominant group set the norms and rules for society and they expect everyone to follow the same rules we focus less on qualitative resources Violence when people in a lower hierarchy are experiencing abuse violence genocide O Gerrymandering you can change your district to favor your own ideology Conformity Adapting behaviors attitudes emotions to social cultural norms in a given context 0 You can gain privilege avoid conflict or fit in Psych and Culture Page 1 O Colored pen study I Majority red or green color available In the US 75 of the people knowingly picked the wrong answer 0 They had different reasons for doing this There are some cultures where there is a higher degree of conformity Russia China East Asian people picked the majority color Europeans picked the minority color Passing people who would try to pretend to be part of a majority group by looking like them quotBecoming Americanquot Conformity is not identical across cultures It is higher for lower SES groups There can be huge risks to not conforming o Amish thing Conform or lose privilege 0 Japanese tea ceremony norms and quotsaving facequot Rachel Ray39s Keffiyeh not wearing it Psych and Culture Page 2 092315 Wednesday September 23 21115 1117 Nationality Nationality legal status of belonging to a particular geographic or cultural state 193 Nationalities in the world Citizenship status Real Taiwan Palestine Kosovo Somaliland Transdniester Nationality can change based on historical or political forces Some people don39t get formal recognition from the countries they live in O The Roma people Romany quotGypsyquot 0 They are migratory but they aren39t technically citizens o Bedouins some people don39t see nation lines as we do 0 Tuareg Kenya was at one point a colony of the British 0 The Nubians were from Sudan who were fighting for the British but they lost so the British left and the Nubians were left behind but are oppressed and not recognized The Dalit caste they are the Untouchables they aren39t recognized and they are widely oppressed in South Asia UN Guidelines say that you can use the term quotStatelessquot to describe people who have no formal recognition from the nation they live in O Kurdistan they have over 28 Million people but no country as their own There are countries that are listed as being at risk for committing genocide or secession basically forcing people to be stripped of their rights Bicultural or Multicultural people who have two or more cultural influences impacting their lives Blending engaging in psychological tendencies from more than one culture 0 Multiple Selves 0 Greater creativity ability to discriminate stimuli FrameSwitching o Gain privilege from associating with gt 1 culture 0 Selfesteem personality also often coincides with frameswitching Acculturation Pos39t39ve Acculturation curve A 0 People are really excited initially 0 People freak out because of the cultural differences 0 People slowly start to adjust Sojourner when you are only there temporarily and you don39t adapt much Reverse culture shock 0 Me with Scotland and tea Negat39ve Cultural Distance how similar or dissimilar your country is to the new country 0 Cultural distance is low between here and Canada Honeymoon Crisis of Culture Shock Adjustment 0 Cultural distance is high between here and India Factors that help with acculturation include how 0 Geographical closeness 0 Language 0 Cultural fitPersonality match I German culture running like clockwork Appearances what do you look like Need for cognitive closure they find it hard to adjust because they want specific answers to questions they have to know all of the rules they are less willing to just jump in John Berry Model There are four ways to adjust to a new culture Attitudes toward host culture No Culture shock in scotland McDonalds in france Attitudes towards quot39 Integration Separation heritage Assimilation Marginalization culture Of these four the best tends to be those who are integrated because they get to keep both of their cultural traditions There are plenty of positive aspects of acculturation This depends on where you move to and where you are coming from New Freedom Opportunity Selfesteem may improve for some people Negative Aspects Acculturative stress 0 Likelihood of depression anxiety substance abuse 0 There may be healthy new norms 0 Japanese immigrants died earlier 0 Latino immigrants may disrespect authority figures Psych and Culture Page 1 Exposure to stereotypes and discrimination O Discrimination the quothair queue lawquot I It was illegal to have hair this way which was common for the Chinese 0 Native American mascot study I When white students look at Native American mascots they report more negative feelings towards Native Americans 0 Stereotype threat I When someone feels worried that they will live up to a stereotype associated with their race or gender This doesn39tjust apply to moving from one country to another this could also apply to sex changes religion moving from one culture to another Psych and Culture Page 2