Anatomy and phys lecture 9
Anatomy and phys lecture 9 PHCL2600
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Legacy Tanner on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHCL2600 at University of Toledo taught by Williams,F in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Funct Anat and Pathophysiol I in Pharmaceutical Sciences at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
Anatomy Lecture 9 Other active process exocytosis 0 Movement of large molecules out of cell membrane 0 Membrane of secretory vesicle fuses with the eternal plasma membrane 0 Region breaks down and the contents of the vesicle are left outside the cell 0 Cellular Membrane o Metabolism all chemical reactions in the cell catabolism anabolism o Catabolism all chemical reactions that result in molecules being broken down to their parts sometimes for energy 0 Anabolism all chemical reactions that result in molecules synthesis requires energy Enzymes 0 Review pages 5052 and know for this part Activation energy energy required to take reactants and make products Active site Induced t model 0 Lock and key model Michaelis constant Coenzyme and cofactor o Enzymes are Proteins that catalyze reactions that is they increase the rate of a given reaction usually by lowering the activation energy o This is the energy required to break bonds and form new ones what an enzyme often does Highly speci c for one reaction and what they work on substrates 0 Enzymes do not Get chemically or physically altered by the reaction they are the same at the end as they were in the beginning Change the nature of the reaction or its outcome they simply speed it up 0 Naming enzymes Generally speaking if you add the suffix ase to the name of the substrate you would have the name of the enzyme that catalyzes a reaction on that substrate example ATPase 0 Other things help too Cofactors nonprotein substance usually inorganic that need to be present for enzyme activity to be good Mg2 Ca2 Mn2 Cu2 Fe2 Zn2 Coenzymes organic nonprotein molecules necessary for enzyme function usually involved in carrying atoms from one part of substrate to another also can donate atoms these are derived from vitamins 2 examples 0 NAD stands for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide derived from niacin involved in energy production by transfer of 2 electrons and 2 H s and gives cell energy through the electron transport chain FAD stands for avin adenine dinucleotide derived from ribo avin and does the same things to generate energy asNAD 0 Protein synthesis Takes genetic code from DNA and translates to RNA and then protein Amino acids are strung together in a speci c sequence to form a protein with a speci c funcUon The players 0 Nucleic acids 0 Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA 0 Ribonucleic acid RNA 0 Nucleic acids are a sequence of nucleotides that are covalently linked together by phosphates Nucleotides 0 Made up of a base sugar and a phosphate 0 Nucleotides DNA Bases adenine guanine cytosine thymine Phosphate groups 0 Double helix 2 chains of nucleotides that wrap around each other 0 AT CG I RNA Bases adenine guanine cytosine uracil Phosphate groups 0 Single chain of nucleotides acting as the messenger from DNA AU GC Directing the show 0 DNA directs transcription or the creating of a ribonucleic acid copy of the DNA s information o This is accomplished by a code that is three nucleotides long triplet code and acts as a message for each amino acid to be added to the protein 0 Genes promoters and getting things started 0 The triplet based code in DNA will represent all the amino acids in an entire protein over a certain stretch This is called a gene 0 DNA has many genes separated from each other by large stretches of DNA Promoter and terminator o Promoter starts transcription and is located at the 539 end of the gene s coding strand 2 strands or the 339 end of the template strand 0 Terminator stops transcription and is located at the 339 end of the gene s codon strand or the 539 end of the template strand 0 Who s responsible o For rRNA synthesis an enzyme called RNA polymerase I o For mRNA synthesis an enzyme called RNA polymerade II o For tRNA and other small RNAs it39s RNA polymerase Ill 0 What happens 0 Transcription Formation of mRNA from DNA Strands of DNA are separated into coding and template strands This actually happens at a speci c site in the DNA called the promoter RNA is synthesized in a 5 gt 3 fashion RNA synthesis stops when synthesis encounters the termination site 0 RNA synthesis continued 0 Some nal thoughts Remember that 3 nucleotides together code for an amino acid codon Beginning of translation lst codon read for an amino acid is start codon AUG End of translation last codon read for an amino acid is stop codon UAA UAG