Anatomy and phys lecture 10
Anatomy and phys lecture 10 PHCL2600
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Legacy Tanner on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHCL2600 at University of Toledo taught by Williams,F in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Funct Anat and Pathophysiol I in Pharmaceutical Sciences at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
Anatomy Lecture 10 RNA editing 0 Most mRNA goes through an editing process called posttranscriptional modi cation RNA that is produced by transcription is a premRNA or what is called heteronuclear RNA Produced by RNA polymerase II and need to be changed to be functional for translation Addition of a 539 cap 7methyl guanosine and 3 phosphates Gppp done before the RNA transcript is complete Addition of poly A tail adenosine residues added to the RNA when it is completed about 200 of them for the average human transcript Splicing removal of introns from the RNA transcript by small ribonuclear proteins snRNPs Exons code for amino acids in proteins lntrons do not code for anything must be removed for a good transcript to be formed We now have a usable form of DNA code for the next step in protein synthesis translation 0 Translation the players 0 Messenger RNA mRNA containing the sequence of amino acids for a protein through the genetic code received from DNA leaves the nucleus for the cytoplasm through the nuclear pore o Ribosomal RNA rRNA producing the ribosomal subunits or transcriptional machinery Transfer RNA tRNA acts as an adaptor bringing in the correct amino acid to t the codon or 3 base pair sequence contained in mRNA Ribosomal subunits bind to mRNA using the start codon initiator tRNA Met and other proteins called initiation factors 1 and 2 Characteristic shape one end has a codon 3 bases that codes for 1 of the amino acid called anticodon Amino acid is attached to the other end of the molecule Anticodon will base pair with codon in mRNA and bring amino acid into the ribosome for attachment to growing protein Transcription and translation 0 Facts for thought First tRNA base pairs with the rst start codon Psite second tRNA base pairs with second codon on mRNA Asite and a covalent bond is formed between two amino acids making a protein catalyzed by peptidlytransferase Single ribosome can synthesize protein at a rate of approx 15 peptide bonds per second lOOmin Transcription is affected by proteins called transcription factors that can bind to the promoter region upstream or downstream to either enhance or repress transcription from the promoter by RNA polymerase Metabolism o Catabolism of proteins fats and sugars bring the cell energy that is used to produce other molecules and is usually found in the cell in the form of ATP 0 The catabolism of these things produce energy through a common intermediate Acetyl CoA 0 We will focus on the carbohydrate metabolism because it is so important to cells 0 Enzyme Kinetics o Enzymes are proteins therefore they can and do have properties similar to proteins Denature proteins can cause to unfold and become inactive by heat pH acid base They are catalysts they increase the rate of reaction without being changed themselves 0 Michaelis Menten The maximum rate of reaction with an enzyme present is Vmax The Michaelis constant is the amount of substrate that is required to produce 12 the maximum rate of reaction Km All enzymes will have an initial rate of reaction Vi which can go up or get induced by the amount of substrate present 0 So Vi can increase until it hits a ceiling or maximal possible rate of reaction Vmax this is when the enzyme can t handle any more substrate any quicker o The enzyme at this state is called saturated because theoretically all enzyme active sites are occupied by substrate 0 As we see enzymes are capable of being inhibited by the product of the reaction this is done because too much product too fast is deleterious to the cell end product inhibition Energy ow chart Glycolysis 2 ATP 2NADHH Citric acid 2 ATP 6NADHH 2FADH2 Shuttle 2 FADH2 2NADHH Pyruvate conversion 2NADHH Electron transport 24 ATP from NADHH 8 ATP from FADH2 O O O O O o 36 ATPs Homeostatic control mechanism 0 A collection of components that keep a physical or chemical component of the body relatively stable or constant 0 Components Re exes Stimulus change in the environment cold etc Receptor the detection unit nerve ending etc Integrating center place that receives input sorts it out and sends message to effector Effector the part of body that responds to stimulus Response 0 A response elicited by a stimulus o The pathway creating the re ex is called a re ex arc O This includes not only the components of the homeostatic mechanism but the afferent and efferent pathway that help with the response to the stimulus Afferent sensory to brain Efferent motor to muscles 0 Example 0 000000 0 O Stimulus decreased exterior temperature Receptors temp sensitive nerve endings Afferent pathways nerves Integrating center brain hypothalamus Efferent pathway nerves Effectors blood vessels skeletal muscles Response vasoconstriction shivering decreases heat loss increases heat Diagram in phone about the decrease in blood pressure and how the body reacts Blood pressure triggers increase in baroreceptors and hypothalamus ADH antidiuretic hormone Both loops are negative feedback loops just working on different things This basically forces blood to the core so safe essential organs PNS resists blood so it goes to core Increase in blood pressure diagram in phone Based on negative feedback Cervix dilation Based on positive feedback Diagram in phone Know how to do and solve cks law