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Anatomy and phys lecture 11

by: Legacy Tanner

Anatomy and phys lecture 11 PHCL2600

Legacy Tanner
Funct Anat and Pathophysiol I

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Anatomy and physiology lecture 11 notes
Funct Anat and Pathophysiol I
Class Notes
anatomy, notes, PHCL, Frederick Williams
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Legacy Tanner on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHCL2600 at University of Toledo taught by Williams,F in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Funct Anat and Pathophysiol I in Pharmaceutical Sciences at University of Toledo.


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Date Created: 10/06/15
Anatomy Lecture 1 1 Cell pathology 0 Since we are pharmacy students we would like to study diseases and the effect that drugs have on disease 0 To do this we must rst understand pathology 0 Cell dysfunction can happen It is an isolated cell no real problem 0 When groups of cells become dysfunctional leads to disease 0 Cell reaction to stressors 0 Cells are often subjected to abnormal amounts of external stresses they can react to this in several ways Adapt alter in such a way that the cell remains functional but different lnjury a reversible damage is done to the cell because stress has gone past adaptation Death irreversible injury occurs if stress persists resulting in cell death 0 Factors that determine process 0 Maturity of cell is a cell is mature it may adapt while immature cell may die from same stress 0 Nutrition better fed cells will be more likely to adapt rather than die in uenced by glucose and oxygen supplies 0 Health if a cell had been injured prior may be more likely to be injured or die from similar stresses 0 Causes of stress for cells 0 Lack of oxygen hypoxia remember this is needed for oxidative phosphorylation wo it a lot less energy This can happen by Loss of blood supply blocked severed vessel neuron 3min muscle hour 0 Time means how long it takes for injury to start Respiratory failure Blood carries less oxygen CO carbon monoxide poisoning anemia 0 Biological agents bacteria viruses fungi etc interfere with cell metabolism infections 0 Nutritional imbalance less glucose gt less ATP less vitaminsgt less ATP coenzymes more fat ion imbalance o Genetics lack of enzymes Down s or other proteins decrease in cell cycle mitosis 0 Physical agents temp trauma burns radiation Problem encountered here is often production of toxic substances such as H202 OH 02 which can carry one unpaired electron and are highly reactive these attack and degrade nucleic acids proteins phospholipids Take your vitamins A C and E 0 These are antioxidants 0 Chemicals this includes drugs 0 Immunologic reactions autoimmune diseases such as diabetes and multiple sclerosis body normally makes antibodies to seek out and destroy the foreign substances that get in to the body in some cases body will make antibodies to its own cells or proteins Adaptation o Adaptation does not mean that the cell does not change 0 The cell changes to accommodate the stress and lies somewhere between a typical cell and a dead one o This is a reversible situation 0 What does a cell do to adapt Changes occur in growth and differentiation Atrophy or shrinkage is quite common as the cell shrinks in size because of a lack of cell substances or cell number if in an organ or other structure due to decreased synthesis or increase in degradation of cell autophagy 0 Why does this happen Decreased workload muscle 0 Muscle isn t worked as hard gets soft Decrease in blood flow brain 0 Loss of cell number blood flow with age Loss of nerve input muscle Denervation leads to atrophy Loss of hormonal guidance ovaries Decrease in FSH andor LH o Other reasons for small cells Stress is only one reason cells can be small cells can fail to develop atrophy assumes that cells developed and then had to adapt Agenesis organ fails to develop Aplasia failure of cells to develop Hypoplasia growth and development ends prior to full number of cells required for organ or other structure formation Hypertrophy increase in cell size resulting in a corresponding increase in tissue or organ due to increase in amount of synthesis of structural components of the cell 0 Skeletal muscle increase workload on muscles they get bigger weightlifting 0 Cardiac muscle increase workload on heart muscle due to hypertension heart has to work harder to pump against bigger pressures gets bigger o Uterine size during pregnancy increase in hormonal stimulation estrogen gt smooth muscle 0 Not all is good Increase in cell size in heart and enlargement of organ is hallmark of hypertension however other changes also occur in the cell lf hypertrophy is severe or too long a nite limit is reached and cardiac cells will start to degenerate gt weaker heart


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