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States of Consciousness

by: Gigi

States of Consciousness PSY150A1

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Psychlogy > PSY150A1 > States of Consciousness
GPA 4.0
Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1)
Adam Lazarewicz

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About this Document

These are the in class lecture notes from unit 5, States of Consciousness.
Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1)
Adam Lazarewicz
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gigi on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Adam Lazarewicz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1) in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 10/06/15
5 States of Consciousness Consciousness A person s awareness of hisher own existence sensations cognitions Sergent amp Dehaene 2004 Certain threshold of brain activityconsciousness Consciousness emerges from individual brain events musical chord analogy Occurs in different parts of the brain depending what the person is aware of at a given time does not arise from perceptual areas like occipitaltemporal lobes instead several areas in the parietal amp frontal lobes Consciousness is not merely perception It is an experience that emerges from patterns of brain activity Timing of Consciousness Libet 1985 2004 The decision to move becomes conscious 200ms before movement occurs Motor cortex activity begins 500ms before movement It feels like Consciousnessgt brain activity gt behavior Actually Brain activitygt consciousness gt behavior Does free will exist Wegner 2002 2 things need to happen for us to assume that A caused B 1 A comes before B 2 It makes sense that A would cause B People experience a thought A then immediately observe themselves doing a behavior B Magical thinking Belief that you can in uence events at a distance without obvious explanations of how Like wearing certain clothing during football game out of superstition Thinking about an event just before it happens gives us a sense of authorship of that event Baumeister 2009 Tell people there is no such thing as free will cheating refusal to help social irresponsibility The difference between having free will and believing in free will believing in free will matters Sleep Altered state of consciousness Restorative theory Helps body recover from wear and tear energy Evolutionary theory Sleep keeps people out of trouble at night since we have poor night vision and are susceptible to predators or falling off a cliff etc Cognitive theory Helps consolidate memory Circadian rhythm Regular bodily rhythms that occur with in a 24hr cycle biological clock Blood pressure pulse rate body temp blood sugar level hormone levels metabolism Hypothalamus Keeps us balanced regulates sleep Light sensitive structure that triggers pineal gland Pineal gland Endocrine gland that secrets melatonin Melatonin Hormone that makes people feel sleepy quothormone of darknessquot Cues We are sensitive to cues of dark and light Aso sensitive to cultural cues to time such as clocks or watching certain TV shows before bed People deprived of such cues end up living a 249 hr day ie blind people Stages of Sleep An accidental EEG discovery showed that the brain does not turn off during sleep Order of sleep stages 123432 REM 23432 REM Seep cycle repeats about every 90 min 4 5xnight Stages 3 and 4 get shorter and shorter and eventually disappear Alpha Waves Relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed awake state Stage 1 Lasts 5 minutes transition from wakefulness to sleep easily awakened Theta waves Less regular lower frequency 0 Flashing lightsgeometric patterns 0 Experience falling oating sensation or feel the body jerk suddenly hypnotic jerk Stage 2 Lasts 20 minutes Seep spindles brief bursts of rapid rhythmic brain activity K complexes single highamplitude waves Easiy awakened Stage 3 amp4 3 2050 of brain activity is delta waves 4 more than 50 are Decreases in heart rate blood pressure breathing body temperature Lasts 30 min Delta waves Slow high amplitude waves associated with deep sleep Rapid Eye Movement REM Sleep Rapid irregular breathing amp heart rate quick eye movements behind closed lids Most likely to have dreams that you remember REM gets longer as you sleep 2025 of a full nights sleep is REM REM Dreams Emotional story like rich amp vivid in the earlier stage dreams Visua auditory cortices more active Dreams may help to consolidate memory Better performance on learned tasks after REM sleep Dreams may strengthen neural pathways by providing periodic stimulation REM Rebound Longer more frequent REM stages following sleep deprivation Brain keeps track of amount of REM sleep amp seeks it out if it needs more Freudian Dream Interpretation quotRoyal road to the unconsciousquot Dreams allow us to express amp ful ll unconscious desires Manifest Content Obvious memorable content of a dream Latent Content Symboic content amp meaning of a dream Activation Synthesis Dreams are a product of random bursts of theory neural activity Especiay during REM Activate auditory amp visual areas brain attempts to make sense of info Insomnia Repeated difficulty falling asleep staying asleep or waking up too early Treatments sedatives that depress central nervous system ex Ambien However these may suppress REM are addictive tolerance develops Stimulus control Create association between bed and sleep ex taking hot shower before bed only using bed for sleep Narcolepsy Uncontrollable quotsleep attackquot 520 min slip into REM win 10 min 0 70 experience catapexyoss of muscle control slurred speech impaired vision Triggered by intense emotions o De cit in Hypocretin Hypocretin Neurotransmitter that keeps us alert Sleep Apnea Person temporarily stops breathing during sleep snore decreased oxygen wakes sleeper 400 timesnight 0 Typically no memory of waking Common treatment CPAP stream of compressed air Night Terrors Vivid frightening experiences 0 Wake up gasping may scream usually impossible to be woken memory Nightmares bad dreams in REM Terrors in stages 3 amp4 early in night Most common in children amp boys Can be chronic in adults Treated with therapy amp antidepressants


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