Mod. 7 Lectures 1-5
Mod. 7 Lectures 1-5 ASM 104
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Hsu on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASM 104 at Arizona State University taught by Campisano in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Bones, Stones/Human Evolution in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
MODULE 7 LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION This lecture is just a summary of what topics are covered in module 7 MAIN POINTS Evolution of behavior Examples of behavioral adaptions Migration of geese Beavers building dams amp lodges What behavior is quotfitquot depends on behavior of others Baboons frequent con ict over mates amp resources gt most aggressive individuals are selected for Learning shapes behavior Same animal will behave differently in different environments Technically learning mechanisms not behavior are what evolve SUMMARY Module 8 lectures First four nonhuman primate behavior Mating systems sexual selection Parental investment Evolution of cooperation Life histories amp cognition Last four human behavior Evolutionary psychology Evolution amp culture Evolution amp culture part 2 Human mating amp parenting MODULE 7 LECTURE 2 INTRODUCTION This lecture is about primate mating amp sexual selection from the perspective of male reproductive tactics KEY POINTS In reproduction males have more choice than females in how much effort they invest because they don39t have to carry amp nurse the offspring There is an inverse relationship between male mating effort amp male parenting effort Males of some species expend lots of effort competing for females but barely do any parenting while in other species there is not much mating effort but lots of involvement in raising offspring MAIN IDEAS Darwin Linked certain traits to mating effort Some traits improve ability to compete w same sex Ex male deer antlers used to fight other males Some traits improve ability to attract opposite sex Ex peacock tail feathers increase vulnerability to predators but attract females Sexual selection SS SS traits increase mating success Often contrary to what you think natural selection would favor like peacock tail feathers Most pronounced in whichever sex has to compete more for access to mates usually males in mammals Intrasexual selection competition among the same sex For males mainly traits that enhance strength ability to fight other males Teeth tusks horns antlers body size etc Favors sexual dimorphism males are much bigger than females in one malemultifemale species but similar size as females in pairbonded species Pairbonded species amp male parenting effort Callicebus amp owl monkeys carry groom amp play w offspring Gibbons defend territory of small family group Siamangs defend territory amp help carry babies Pairbonded primates still sometimes mate w individuals other than their bonded mates Non pairbonded species amp male mating effort Baboons high competition for females bc long periods of gestation amp lactation mean few are quotavailablequot Males have much larger body size amp canines amp compete amongst each other for rank which provides more opportunities to mate Short period of opportunity for males to reproduce have to be high ranking AND in reproductive prime Sexually Selected Infanticide Hypothesis Bc females are infertile while lactating but become fertile again if their baby dies males may kill babies to gain more mating opportunities especially if they only have a small window Likely to be done by males who have recently gained high rank Target unweaned infants since lactation is what inhibits fertility Only kill other males39 offspring Killers mate w victim39s mother Major cause of infant death in many primates of all major groups between 2050 MODULE 7 LECTURE 3 INTRODUCTION This lecture is about parenting in primates KEY POINTS Mating effort Monitoring location amp availability of potential partners Evaluating quality Competing for access Providing resources for partner Parenting effort Gestation Lactation Caring for offspring High mating effort gt low parenting effort Low mating effort gt high parenting effort MAIN IDEAS Reproductive tasks amp who does them Gamete production Male amp female Gestation Female Lactation Female Infant care Male and or female In most mammals females have lower mating effort amp higher parenting effort and males have higher mating effort amp lower parenting effort Resources that primate mothers provide to offspring Lactation Eating together showing what amp how to eat Transportation Warmth infants have less thermoregulation ability Protection from other group members or predators Tradeoff between quality amp quantity More care for one infant benefits that one but decreases care that can be given to others lactation inhibits ovulation Most primates have few offspring amp provide a lot of care In Callitrichids there is one breeding pair amp all other members help care for their offspring Cooperative breeding like this changes the quality quantity relationship Mother s investment in each offspring Interbirth interval IBI gestation lactation amp recovery Correlates w body size Callitrichids 6 months Macaques 12 months Baboons 18 months Apes 57 years Energy investment Gestation 2030 more calories More nutrient requirements folate calcium zinc amp iron Lactation 3739 more calories How More time spent feeding More nutrientrich foods Reduce activity level to conserve energy Reduce their own nutrient energy reserves Reduced as infant gets older bc it can take care of itself more Infant transition to independence Contact w mothers nursing carrying etc decreases while independent feeding increases Mother can prepare for the next offspring Reproductive fitness of females Firsttime mothers less success Often not fullygrown inexperienced Highranking females sometimes more success than lowranking Cooperative breeders and or females w strong social bonds more success MODULE 7 LECTURE 4 INTRODUCTION This lecture is about primate social behavior MAIN IDEAS Impact of social behavior on individual amp others Individual Others Selfish Positive Negative Mutualism Positive Positive Altruism Negative Positive Spite Negative Negative Altruism Seems contrary to natural selection which favors traits that make an individual more successful than others Mechanisms that promote altruism Kin selection observed by biologist William Hamilton Individuals are altruistic towards their kin Hamilton s rule br gt c when b fitness benefits gained by recipient r probability that 2 individuals are related c fitness lost by actor r 12 for mother amp offspring r 11 for grandparent amp offspring r 12 for siblings r 11 for halfsiblings b and c are hard to measure but basically the closer r is to 1 the more likely altruistic behavior is and the closer it is to O the less likely Reciprocity Altruists only help other altruists idea of paying each other back Requirements opportunity to interact again ability to recognize the individual amp ability to remember past altruism Evidence Chacma baboons tend to groom individuals that also groom them Field experiment w vervet monkeys a monkey hears another monkey scream that recently groomed the first monkey OR a monkey hears another monkey scream that it has not recently interacted w Results showed the first monkey responded more strongly to the scream after being groomed by that monkey Controversy Controlled lab experiments didn t show the correlation that field experiments did Monkeys may not be smart enough to keep track of all of the interactions over time Matrilineal hierarchy occurs in some primates All members of a group of females related through the maternal line have the same rank in relationship to a different line Mothers support immature offspring when they con ict w others ranking below the mothers Offspring gain ranks just below their mothers sisters usually ranked in opposite order of age SUMMARY Although altruistic behavior seems unlikely according to natural selection it s actually very common among primates who are closely related to each other Reciprocity may also lead to altruistic behavior in primates but we don t know for sure MODULE 7 LECTURE 5 INTRODUCTION This lecture is about primate life histories and cognition MAIN IDEAS Linkage of life history variables and morphological traits Body size Small Large Age of maturity Early Late Gestation length Short Long Litter size Large Small Lifespan Short Long Brain size Small Large Most primates fall on the right side w long gestation long lifespan late maturation small litter size amp large brain size in relation to body size Advantages of early maturation amp reproduction vs late maturation amp reproduction Early Late Longer period of potential reproduction More time to spend energy on growth amp development Reduces time between generations More time for learning Having more time for growth development amp learning may lead to greater reproductive success later on bc it can make the individual less vulnerable better at competing know more survival strategies etc Why did natural selection favor primates having such large brains Brain is only 2 of body weight but consumes 20 of energy so it must have a good purpose Ecological Hypothesis Large brain needed for foraging processing techniques like cracking nuts etc Social Brain Hypothesis Large brain needed to solve social problems like con ict amp cooperation Evidence data shows brain size is linked to group size social network size Other correlations Brain size linked to frequency of innovation creating new solutions for problems Brain size linked to social learning Monkeys knowledge of relationships Understand other individuals kin amp rank relationships not just their own Mothers recognize their own infants distress cries Other females look at the mother when they hear the distress cries gt they know the mother amp infant are connected Baboons recognize each other s calls amp respond differently to calls of high ranking or low ranking individuals Knowledge of others knowledge An experiment placed a high ranking amp a low ranking chimpanzee near an enclosure w two piles of fruit in it They are placed so the high ranking one can only see one pile but the low ranking one can see both In the results the low ranking chimpanzee usually tries to get the pile that the other one can t see which means it knows the other one can t see it Relative encephalization ratio of brain size to body size of different primates from lowest to highest Strepsirrhines Monkeys Apes Humans Social hypothesis doesn t explain this bc apes don t live in larger groups than monkeys so this might be related to foraging challenges and or social learning apes use tools eat foods that are hard to access amp process amp have many socially learned behaviors