9/15/25 -9/29/15 personality
9/15/25 -9/29/15 personality PSY
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis Hanford on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY at Syracuse University taught by L. Gellis in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
91515 Tuesday September 15 2015 1223 PM Trait 1 PersonSituation Debate Ch4 Test 1 Sept22 Next Tuesday Ch1 5 50 multiple choice Mostly notes occasional question from book among topic discussed class Chapter 3 generalizability the concept and the specific examples that effect the quality of data Pg 7176 I AM Traits PersonSituation Debate Why do we do the things we do Walter Mischel 1968 can personality predict behavior He looked at the correlations between B data and S data B data and I data B data with other B data Conclusion correlations seldom gt 3 with an upper limit of 4 situation is more important than personality traits personality doesn t exist Countera rgume nts 1 Personality is more relevant in real life situations 2 Psychologists need to do better research focus more on general trends Reliability and aggregation 3 A correlation of 40 is not small Correlation Coefficient Direction Positive or Negative same direction39s opposite direction39s 4 Situations not better similar correlations assessing the power of situations Resolution they both matter ex Aggressive person who Is put in a frustrating situation ex intelligence and early education ex Shyness and presentations Personality Assessment Test one Tuesday sept22 Ch 15 50 multiple choice Ch3 generalizability the concept and the specific examples of personality Types of Personality Tests Projective tests ambiguous stimuli no clear meaning Ex Rorschach Ink Blot what do you see A projection of what is in the mind Advantages difficult to lie or mislead can evaluate aspects of the self that may be unknown to the person Disadvantages expensive validity is questioned does not correlated with S data in personality variables Objective Tests ask participants specific questions and asses their personality on the basis of their choices among pre determined options less open to interpretation 1Rationa Test Construction items that seems to be directly obviously and rationally related to what the test developer wishes to measure S data 2Minnesota Multiphasic Personality inventory MMPI identify personality types and used to asses psychological problems lots measured in one OMNIBUS test very long 567 questions standardized 3Empirica Test Construction lack of concern with item content or face validity doesn t matter what the count is only the whether it predicts scores in a category can include items that are absurd difficult to fake Example questions Which kind of data are the most inexpensive to collect SelfData most expensive is Behavioral data essentially measures your reputation Because each kind of data has limitations personality psychologists should gather as much data as possible If you can get the same measurement repeatedly then your measurement is reliable Jane recently completed new test that was designed to measure her IQ she took the test twice and each time she received the same score the test administrator told her that her scores indicate that she is extremely intelligent however Jane scored well below average when she complete well established intelligence tests based on this patter that the new iq is The situationist argument holds that Our every day intuitions about people are fundamentally flawed situations are more important that personality traits for determining behavior a through review of the literature reveals that there is a limit to how well one can predict behavior from personality Afundamental problem for the trait approach is people are inconsistent 92915 Tuesday September 29 2015 1229 PM Five Factor Model Traits Conscientiousness organization persistence and motivation Organized vs disorganized Careful vs careless Deliberate vs impulsive Dependable less risky and more healthy behavior decrease in popularity and creativity Agreeableness compassionate and easy going softhearted vs ruthless trusting vs suspicious helpful vs uncooperative Openness to experience seeking out appreciation and tolerance for new experiences independent vs practical imaginative vs practical preference for a variety vs routine creative liberal use drugs Biological Approach roadmap Effects of biological systems on personality genetics and personality evolution and human behavior Complex biological systems and relations with human behavior Eysenck Extraversion and the ARAS ascending reticular activating system regulated the amount od sensory information to the brain Differences in extraverts and introverts Introverts get more sensory information than they need easily aroused Extroverts less information gets in and they seek excitement Geen 1984 introverts and extroverts choose noise level during a learned taskextroverts chose more intense noises introverts always more aroused especially at higher noise levels optimal performance at matched or preferred intensity AMYGDALA increase heart rate raise blood pressure muscles tense Cortex cognition planning executive functioning Phineas Gage 1848 explosion forced a steel tamping rod through his head damage to cortex frontal lobe inability to regulate and understand emotions Behavioral genetics what genes contribute to our thoughts emotions and behaviors How much is our phenotype observable traits explained by our genotype genetic structure Compare family members on personality traits Shared familial environment similar parenting styles More genes shared the more similar personalities Twin studies Monozygotic identical twins 100 match in genes Dizygotic twins fraternal twins 50 match in genes Adoption studies children share 50 genes with biological parents and 0 with adopted This shows that genes are important and powerful Special twins studies twins that are separated at birth raised apart or raised together We found that when they are raised together we got 52 and raised apart 49
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