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Chapter 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissues

by: Nysheba Carter

Chapter 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissues BIO 208-003

Marketplace > Northern Kentucky University > Biology > BIO 208-003 > Chapter 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissues
Nysheba Carter
GPA 3.2
Human Anatomy and Physiology I - NS
Robert Kues

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Here's the notes for chapter 6 if you weren't in class today. Hope this helps you a lot .
Human Anatomy and Physiology I - NS
Robert Kues
Class Notes
bones, Skeletal tissues, chapter 6
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nysheba Carter on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 208-003 at Northern Kentucky University taught by Robert Kues in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I - NS in Biology at Northern Kentucky University.


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Date Created: 10/06/15
Chapter 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissues Skeletal Cartilages All contains chondrocytes contain large amounts of waterwhich accounts for its resilience Three types HyaHne Glassy bers 0 Most abundant provides support exibility and resilience examples nasal cartilage costal and respiratory Elastic Similar to hyaline cartilage contains elastic bers to repeat bending examples external ear and epiglottis Fibrocartilage Highly compressible Thick collagen bers 0 Examples menisci of knee Growth of cartilage Appositional growthcell secrete matrix against external outside Interstitial growth chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix expanding cartilage form within inside Calci cation of cartilage 0 occurs during normal bone growth hardens but calci ed cartilage IS NOT bone Classi cation of Bones 0 206 bones in skeleton Bones are classi ed as long short at or irregular on their shape and there proprtion of compact and spongy bone Divides into two groups Axial long axis of the body 0 Examples skull rib cage and vertebral column Appendicular bones of the upper and lower limb and attaches to the axial skeleton Functions of bones Support for body and soft organs Protection for brain spinal cords and vital organs Movement levers for muscle action Mineral and growth factor storagecalcium and phosphoruous and growth factors resovouir Blood cell formation in red marrow cavities of certain brains Fat storage ebergy source Hormone reproduction protects against obesity and diabetes melitis Bones 0 Bones are organs 0 Contain different types of tissues such as bone osseous tissue nervous tissue cartilage fribrous connective tissue muscle and epitltheal cells in its blood veesels Three levels of structure 1 gross anatomy 2 microscopic 3 chemical Bones textures Compact external layers Spongy bone inside the external layer honeycomb of at pieces deep to compact called trabeculae little beams Flat bones consist of 2 thin plates of compact bones enclosing dipoespongy bonelayen Long bone composed of a diaphysisshaft through growth Medullar cavity middle cavity contain yellow marrow Epiphyses bone end and contains spongy bone Membranes Periosteum double layered Covers external joint surfaces outer bvrous layers endosteum connective tissue memberane covers little beams of spongy bone lines canals that passes through compact bone Lacunae smal cavities that contain osteocytes Canaliculi hair like canals that connect lacunae to each other Five types of bones cells P PWF Osteogenic Osteocytes Osteoblast Osteoclast Bone lining cells Intramembranous Ossification Intramembranous ossi cation forms the frontal parietal occipital temporal bones and clavicles Osteoid is secreted Woven bone and periosteum forms Fracture Classi cation Nondisplaced ends retain normal position Displaced ends out of normal alignment Completeness of break Complete broken all the way through Incomplete not broken all the way through Whether the skin is penetrated Open fracture the bone ends are exposed to the external environment Closed fracture the bone ends do not penetrate the external boundary of the skin Agerelated Changes in Bones Children and adolescentsBone formation exceeds resorption Young adultsBoth in balance males greater mass Bone density changes over lifetime largely determined by geneticsGene for Vitamin D39s cellular docking determines mass early in life and osteoporosis risk as age Bone mass mineralization and healing ability decrease with age beginning in 4th decade Except bones of skull Bone loss greater in whites and in females Electrical stimulation Daily ultrasound treatments hasten repair


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