Week 7 Notes
Week 7 Notes SOCIO 561
Popular in Criminology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Shields on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCIO 561 at Kansas State University taught by Mario V Cano in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Kansas State University.
Reviews for Week 7 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/06/15
Chapter 6 Notes The Complexity of Control Hirschi39s Two Theories and Beyond Hirschi39s theories are stated parsimonioust his theories39 core propositions are easily understood Hirschi is combative and thus controversial stakes out a theoretical position and then argues that alternative perspectives are wrong Hirschi39s theories are ideal to test empirically Have not been universally popular Little interest in race class and gender inequalities Social Bond Theory and SelfControl Theory Hirschi39s First Theory Social Bonds and Delinquency Central premise of first theory delinquency arises when social bonds are weak or absent To challenge two major paradigms of his day Sutherland39s differential association theory termed cultural deviance theory and Merton39s strain theory To start a theoretical fight Argued that the wrong question was asked Why are people motivated to to commit crimes Differential Association youths are enveloped by a deviant culture that they learn in interaction with others Positive learning is what moves them to break the law Strain Theory the blockages of goals creates a frustration that is the engine that drives individuals into crime Hirschi asserted that these theories were explaining something that did not require explanation motivation Hirschi asked Why don 39t people break the law What differentiates offenders from nonoffenders are the factors that restrain people from acting on their wayward impulses Theoretical task to identify the nature of the social controls that regulate when crime occurs Hirschi39s Forerunners Concentrated on a search for the essential variables providing control through bonds to conventional society he developed his own position and presented a body of systematic research in support of it Hirschi39s Sociological Perspective Control theorists tended to distinguish between control exerted from sources external to the individual and control exerted from within the individual Reckless argued that the individual is so isolated in contemporary society so free to move from one context of external control to another or even to escape from most of it that internal control is more basic factor in conformity Hirschi more sociological in nature Characteristics that other control theorists took to be aspects of the personality were considered by Hirschi to be factors sustained by ongoing social relationships that he termed social bonds quotRescuedquot Durkheim from the strain theorists quotActually Durkheim39s theory is on of the purest examples of control theoryquot Turned to the question by Hobbes Why do men obey rules of society The problem of explaining deviance was a false problem based on the mistaken assumption that people are fundamentally moral as a result of having internalized norms during socialization nsisted that it was an quotoversimplificationquot to say that quotstrain theory assumes a moral man while control theory assumes an amoral manquot because the latter quotmerely assumes variation in morality For some men considerations of morality are important for others they are notquot Suggested no motivational factors and simply noted that loss of control sets the individual free to calculate the costs of crime quotBecause his perspective allows him to free some men from moral sensitivities the control theorist is likely to shift to a second line of social control to the rational calculational component in conformity and deviationquot Why Social Control Matters Believed that each potential criminal act has benefits and consequences costs Variation in the strength of social control is what explains variation in the extent to which people engage in crime The control resides in a persons39s ties to conventional society to its adult members parents teachers its institutions family school and its beliefs laws normative standards Control thus lies in a person39s relationship to society Social Bonds Attachment Commitment Involvement Belief Variation in social bonds thus explains variation in crime The stronger the bond the more likely criminal enticements will be controlled and that conformity will ensue the weaker the bond the more likely individuals will succumb to their desires and break the law Social bonds control their attraction to illegal temptations and ensure their conformity Social bond remains strong only so long as it is nourished by interaction with conventional others Presence and strength of social bonds can explain change in offending Hirschi did not see the benefits of crime as varying across individuals as the classical school would but rather as easily available to everyone The cost of crime was not as the classical school implied mainly a matter of legal sanctions such as imprisonment People faced with the decision to commit a crime calculate 1 how much money they will get versus 2 their chances of being arrested and sent to jail The Four Social Bonds The Social Bond of Attachment Attachment emotional closeness that youths have with adults with parents typically being the most important Involves intimate communication quotaffectional identificationquot with parents and a sense that parents know what they are doing and where they are Direct Control when parents supervise their offspring while in their presence Indirect Control occurs when children are not in the same location that is are physically separated from parents Hirschi referred to it as quotvirtual supervisionquot Hirschi youngsters refrain from offending because their attachment makes parents psychologically present The Social Bond of Commitment The degree to which the individual 395 selfinterest has been invested in a given set of activities Commitment is part of a costbenefit calculation those highly committed would find delinquency irrational to commit Hirschi quotrational component of conformityquot essentially a matter of the rational calculation of potential gains and losses so that the individual contemplating a deviant act quotmust consider the costs of this deviant behavior the risk he runs of losing the investment he has made in conventional behaviorquot The Social Bond of Involvement Another way of proposing that denial of access to criminal opportunities makes delinquency less likely Pointing to the fact that structured conventional activities take away chances to offend Stressed sociological observation that quotmany persons undoubtedly owe a life of virtually to a lack of opportunity to do otherwisequot Examined the possibility that involvement defined in terms of sheer amount of tie and energy devoted to a given set of activities might represent a key factor in social control More recent data idea that involvement in conventional activities reduces the opportunity to offend Structured activities organized supervised by adult authority figures and conducted in prosocial environments Unstructured activities unorganized unsupervised and held in settings where trouble might arise Socializing through unstructured activities is associated with criminal conduct Wikstrom Oberwittler Treiber and Hardie revealed that unstructured activities were especially consequential for quotcrime pronequot youths who gravitated to quotcriminogenic settingsquot The Social Bond of Belief Suggested approbation in the sense of assent to certain values and norms with some degree of approval Seen as impressions and opinions that are highly dependent on constant social reinforcement If the degree of approbation is slight then the belief becomes a matter of simple assent of a willingness to submit and quotgo alongquot at least for the present If the degree of approbation is greater then it may amount to a belief to which the individual gives eager approval and wholehearted cooperation Such beliefs were not taken to be inner states independent of circumstances instead they are taken to be somewhat precarious moral positions much in need of social support based on the ongoing attachment to conventional social systems Belief is best seen as the extent to which adolescents embrace the moral validity of the law and other conventional normative standards Hirschi contends that crime occurs when people are not socialized properly into conventional beliefs Criminals grow up within the dominant society where they have received the message from parents teachers and clergy that breaking the law is wrong People go into crime because they fail to internalize conventional beliefs to the degree needed to control them from succumbing to the seductions of vice violence or thievery Assessing Social Bond Theory Limitation it was based on the assumption that humans are naturally selfinterested and thus need no special motivation to break the law Unlikely that all individuals are equally motivated to commit crimes If not then a complete theory must include factors such as exposure to strain and the learning of criminal definitions that make some people more strongly predisposed or quotmotivatedquot to offend than other people Limitation his failure to explore how social bonds are potentially affected by the larger social forces in American society Did not explore how the formation of social bonds is affected by factors such as changing gender roles neighborhood disorganization enduring racial inequality or the deterioration of the urban industrial economy Limitation based on limited data analyses he concluded that unjust deprivation from racial discrimination was not criminogenic for minorities Found in Hirschi39s data that perceived racial discrimination was a robust predictor of delinquent involvement whose effects rivaled those of the social bond measures Important for 2 reasons 1 If Hirschi had expanded his investigation to include these items in the mid1960s the future of criminology might have been quite different Might have concluded that while other social bonds have similar effects across the race perceived and real racial discrimination is a distinctive risk factor experienced by African American youngsters 2 Unnever et Al39s findings are not idiosyncratic Now a small but growing body of research showing that perceived racial discrimination leads to delinquency and other problems among African Americans Hirschi39s Second Theory SelfControl and Crime SelfControl Theory perspective created considerable controversy and generated considerable research on its central premise that selfcontrol had quotgeneral effectsquot that it was the key casual factor in crime and deviance across an individual39s life and across social groups quotgeneral theory of crimequot SelfControl and Crime Hirschi emphasized that control is sustained by individuals39 continuing relationship with the conventional order by their bonds to family school work everyday activities and beliefs Gottfredson and Hirschi abandoned idea that continuing social bonds insulate against illegal involvement in favor of the proposition that selfcontrol internalized early in life determines who will fall prey to the seductions of crime The Nature and Impact of Low SelfControl It explains what we know about the nature of crime Key facts about crime Crime provides shortterm gratification such as excitement small amounts of money and relief from situational aggravations People who are involved in crime also engage in behaviors that are quotanalogousquot or similar to crime in that they too furnish shortterm gratification smoking substance abuse speeding in automobiles gambling and irresponsible sexual behaviors Criminals do not plan their conduct their crimes are not specialized or sophisticated but rather are responses to whatever easy illegal opportunities present themselves Offenders fail in social domains school work marriage and so on that require planning sustained effort and delayed gratification Who do these facts about the nature of crime tell us about who offenders Individuals who quottend to be impulsive insensitive physical risktaking shortsighted and nonverbal quotelements of selfcontrolquot Saw them as a single general propensity for crime which that originally labeled as criminality quotThe problem of selfcontrol the differential tendency of people to avoid criminal acts whatever the circumstances in which they find themselvesquot quotpeople differ in the extent to the temptations of the momentquot Distinguished between criminality and crime between low selfcontrol and the actual commission of a criminal act Argued that even if someone desires to offend crime can occur only if the opportunity exists to engage in the conduct Opportunity is so ubiquitous as to become a constant and a constant cannot explain variation in behavior Relinquished social causation of crime whether social bonds or differential opportunity and moved the source of control and thus of crime inside the individual Argued that crime is due to individual differences in the propensity to resist the easy immediate gratification offered by crime and analogous behaviors Control thus no longer resides in the quality of social relationships strength of bonds but as a quality of the self strength of selfcontrol Key thesis is the lower the level of selfcontrol the higher the level of crime analogous or deviant behavior and social failure The Origins of SelfControl Involvement in antisocial behavior including crime appears to be stable across the life course 2 important implications 1 Meant that social bond theory had to be wrong Gottfredson and Hirschi argued that criminal propensity a permanent individual difference was carried across the life course this trait was low of selfcontrol 2 If stability in antisocial conduct started in childhood this meant that the origins of selfcontrol must occur during the early year on life Represented a major attack on all criminological theories that linked crime to any social condition or other factor that occurred after age 8 or 10 Arguing that all these theories were incorrect Only low selfcontrol matters Many conditions that scholars believed caused crime failure or gang membership were in fact the result of low selfcontrol Spurious relationship when two variables are correlated but explained by a third common cause Portrayed criminology as a field replete with spurious theories What determines whether a child will develop selfcontrol Argued that the effectiveness of parental management determined a child39s level of selfcontrol Parental management thesis they proposed that selfcontrol was a product of direct control how parents supervise their offspring Assume that low selfcontrol is natural it is the human nature with which we are born They see humans as seekers of immediate gratification through the easiest means possible Effective parental management involves 3 key ingredients that must be present for selfcontrol to be developed 1 Monitor their children 2 Recognize deviant behavior when it occurs 3 Punish or correct the misconduct Most important is how much parents care for their child Attachment it is not the child39s bonds to the parents that motivates conformity but the parents39 bond to the child that motivates the effort to engage in direct control over the child quotSelfcontrol differences seem primarily attributable to family socialization practices It is difficult for subsequent institutions to make up for deficiencies but socialization is a task that once successfully accomplished appears to be largely irreversiblequot Assessing SelfControl Theory Empirical test of Gottfredson and Hirschi39s perspective generally support the theory39s conclusion that low selfcontrol is related to criminal involvement A metaanalysis of the existing material of the existing empirical literature found that self control is an important predictor of crime Both low selfcontrol and attitudes supportive of aggression social learning theory variable are criminogenic risk factors Studies in psychology reporting that personality traits including those similar to the construct of low selfcontrol are modestly influenced by parenting but have approximately half their variance attributable to heredity Failed to resolve a hidden inconsistency in their thinking Tittle Ward and Grasmick proposed that the construct of selfcontrol is not a single trait or predisposition but rather involves two elements the capacity for selfcontrol and the desire for selfcontrol Tittle et al suggested that individuals may also vary in their interest in exercising self restraint Desire to commit a crime the kind of motivation that traditional theories try to explain Desire for selfcontrol a qualitatively distinct kind of motivation it was the motivation to resist the lure of offending Competing motivational forces whose comparative strength may determine whether a criminal act occurs Selfcontrol is seen as not only as a trait but also as a process 3 stages 1 Setting goals 2 Monitoring progress toward these goals 3 Developing the regulatory strength to reach the goals Failures occur when people set unrealistic goals do monitor their actions related to eh goal attainment and lack the motivational energy to avoid regulatory depletion SelfControl and Social Bonds Based both perspectives on the notion that the motivation to deviate was rooted in the natural human inclination to pursue immediate gratification in the easiest way possible and without regard for others The key factor separating wayward and conforming people was whether the controls existed to restrain them from acting on these impulses Selfcontrol theory is a sociological explanation only in the sense that the effectiveness of early parenting is held to determine the level of selfcontrol that children develop Level of selfcontrol will influence virtually every aspect of a person39s life form involvement in crime to success in all institutional domains Argues that children high in selfcontrol are more likely to be attached to parents and to avoid delinquency whereas children low in selfcontrol have difficulty in forming attachments and are free to break the law Attachment and delinquency are related only because both are caused by a third underlying factor selfcontrol Social bond theory is more of a pure sociological theory Development of social bonds is not limited to childhood bonds are potentially formed at any age mpies that when bonds are formed they will restrain deviant motivations and prevent criminal involvement Argues that social bonds have no influence on criminal involvement Relationship between social bonds and crime is spurious Hirschi39s Revised Social Control Theory Rejects the instability thesis and asserts that social bonds are stable Asserting that the quotsource and strength of 39bonds39 is almost exclusively within the person reporting or displaying themquot Attachment is not based on the quality if the relationship between a parent and a youngster but rather resides mainly in the youth39s mind The problem with linking a bad trait to bad behavior is that it omits the way in which individuals make choices There is a rational or cognitive process that intervenes between propensity and behavior People think and then act Asserted that quotselfcontrol involves cognitive evaluation of competing interests and idea central to control theories The theory requires an explanatory mechanism that retains elements of cognizance and rational choicequot Redefines selfcontrol as quotthe tendency to consider the full range of potential costs of a particular actquot Social bonds are the costs they weigh that inhibit offending Suffers from 2 major shortcomings 1 Hirschi provides no clear explanation of the origins of social bonds Seems to be saying that social bonds are not established through social relationships but rather reflect a youngster39s internal orientation 2 Hirschi simply asserts that social bonds are stable and thus the quotsamequot as self control Social bonds and selfcontrol cannot be made the same by theoretical fiat The Complexity of Control More recent perspectives have illuminated that social control is a complex phenomenon that may have differential effects depending on its quality its magnitude and the context in which it is appHed Hagan 39s PowerControl Theory Gender and Delinquency 1 Contended that delinquency is more likely when a person has a preferences for taking risks an orientation that Gottfredson and Hirschi saw as central to a lack of selfcontrol 2 Both approaches believe that personal orientations whether risk taking or self control are established by the nature of parenting The critical issue is how the balance of power between parents affects the nature of parenting and in turn risk preferences and crime Power relations between husbands and wives shape how children are controlled Assessing PowerControl Theory Advances criminological thinking by illuminating the need to consider how gender based power relations in society influences parental control and delinquent involvement Several considerations 1 Perhaps the theory39s principle limitation is that it remained largely silent on how other structural conditions affect the nature and effectiveness of parenting 2 The perspective originally was developed more as an explanation of quotcommonquot delinquent behavior than as an explanation of chronic andor serious offending 3 Although empirical support for the theory exists most studies have not tested the theory versus competing theories such as social learning theory and theories of individual differences Tittle 395 Control Balance Theory Theoretical Propositions Made the innovative insight that people are not only objects of control but also agents of control Argued that each person has a certain amount of control that he or she is under and a certain amount of control that he or she exerts For some individuals the relative amount of control is in balance others suffer from a control deficit and still others experience a control surplus quotThe amount of control to which an individual is subject relative to the amount of control he or she can exercise determines the probability of deviance occurring as well as the type of deviance likely to occurquot Control ratio Sought to capture the multifaceted conditions that prompt misconduct but his theory involves so many variables that interact in so many ways that it is difficult to test Exploring why individuals become predisposed to develop a motivation to deviate Potential for predisposition lies in human nature because we are creatures that have a strong urge for autonomy that is a proclivity to escape the control that others wish to impose on us Autonomy is made even more salient when people are blocked from attaining goals that are seeking and when their control ratios are unbalanced Convergence of factors autonomy goal blockage and control imbalance fosters a quotstate of readiness to experience a motivation for deviant behaviorquot Predisposition can develop into a clear deviant motivation when 2 conditions transpire 1 The person must quotbecome acutely aware of his or her control imbalance and realize that deviant behavior can change that imbalance either by overcoming a deficit or by extending a surplusquot The functionality or payoff of deviance must become apparent 2 The person must be provoked to experience a quotnegative emotionquot quota feeling of being debased humiliated or denigrated that intensifies the thought that deviance is a possible response to the provocationsquot Deviance is functional in this situation because it allows the person to rectify the attempt to degrade him or her Once deviant motivation has emerged deviant behavior still might not occur A person must have the opportunity to engage in a given act Constraints also must be present might involve an individual39s moral inhibitions level of selfcontrol or social bonds Salient is the control balance ratio which can shape whether deviant behavior will occur and what kind will occur Proposed a typology of deviance in which seven behavioral categories are arranged on a continuum Midpoint is conformity said to correspond to a situation where there is control balance Left side repression three categories each of which involves a control deficit Extreme repression yields submission moderate repression yields defiance and marginal repression yields predation Right side autonomy involve a control surplus maximum autonomy yields decadence medium autonomy yields plunder and minimum autonomy yields exploitation Contended that serious forms of crime would occur among people with small deficits in control When deficits are limited the individual may well judge that a criminal act might be successful in erasing the control imbalance he or she is experiencing f faced with larger deficit a person might merely submit or perhaps engage in less serious forms of deviance that show defiance but do no elicit costly actions from those capable of exerting control over the person Control surpluses generally free people to engage in a range of deviant acts without consequences Noted that many forms of corporate and whitecollar crimes are due to such control surpluses Refined his theory argues that any deviant act can be rated as to its degree of control balance desirability 2 factors 1 Deviant acts vary in their quotlikely longrange effectivenessquot in altering a person39s quotcontrol imbalancequot 2 Deviant acts vary in the degree to which committing them requires that a person quotis directly involved with a victim or an object that is affected by the deviancequot Avoiding direct involvement with a victim is a desirable because distance and impersonality lessen the chance that the person will be subjected to countervailing reactions Assessing Control Balance Theory Made the poignant suggestion that too much control which places a person in a control deficit also may be a cause of crime Has potential weaknesses 1 seems nearly impossible to measure what the control balance desirability would be for the endless acts that are seen as being deviant let alone criminal especially since the desirability of an act could vary by a host of situational factors thus threatening a bothersome boss with assault might be more or less desirable depending on how big the perpetrator was an how scared the boss was 2 His emphasis on autonomy as wellspring of human motivation seems unnecessarily limited 3 Relegated the main casual variables from other theories selfcontrol social bonds and social learning to the secondary role of constraints or contingencies Colvin39s Differential Coercion Theory Argues that the impact of control on crime will differ by its quality Capitalism is a competition in which the owners and managers of businesses seek to maximize profits at the expense of workers Unions are especially important because they provide one of the only means that laborers can use to limit their employers39 workplace control over them and to increase their compensation Capitalist s class has attacked unions and decreased their membership which has resulted in workers experiencing more coercion both from managers they have no power to resist and from living in financially insecure harsh conditions Coercion in the means of production is reproduced in other settings Theoretical Propositions From birth onward people are exposed to varying levels of coercion an experience that is consequential Defined interpersonal coercion as the quotthreat of force and intimidation aimed at creating compliance through fearquot May involve physical punishments or the withdrawal of love and support May face impersonal coercion which is quotpressure arising from structural arrangements and circumstances that seem beyond individual control such as economic and social pressure caused by unemployment poverty or competition among business or other groupsquot Both forms of coercion intersect with those subject to interpersonal coercion living in environments most affected by interpersonal forms of coercion In his view people vary in the extent to which they are exposed to coercion Argued that controls aimed at securing compliance aimed at getting people to obey social norms vary along 2 dimensions 1 The controls can be either coercive or noncoercive 2 The controls can be applied in a way that is either consistent or erratic Most problematic combination is when control is exercised in a coercive and erratic fashion This form of differential coercion produces chronic criminality Coercive and erratic control produces many of the factors that other theorists believe cause crime quotintegratedquot theory In any event harsh and inconsistent coercion creates a sense of unfairness and quotangerquot general strain theory quotweak or alienated social bondsquot social bond theory quotcoercive modelingquot social learning theory quotperceived control deficits with feelings of debasementquot control balance theory and quotlow selfcontrolquot Gottfredson amp Hirschi39s general theory These factors create a strong overall predisposition for chronic involvement in crime psychological deficits Also foster within individuals a coercive ideation people have a worldview that coercion can best be overcome by acting coercively in return they risk becoming involved in predatory behaviors using violence or the threat of violence to control their environments Indicated that the causes of chronic criminality are both intergenerational and developmental Assessing Differential Coercion Theory Found that as predicted by the theory exposure to coercive environments increased selfreported delinquency and that these effects were mediated by social psychological deficits Research consistently reveals that coercive correctional interventions are ineffective and can lead to increases in reoffending Beyond Control Cullen 395 Social Support Theory The Invention of Social Support Theory Examined how social support might lessen mental symptoms either directly or by buffering the effects of stress Scholars examined as well how social support might lessen mental symptoms either directly or by buffering the effects of stress Had an interest in a topic that had emerged in criminal justice and in occupational sociology the stress experienced by workers Explored how social support influenced different forms of stress experienced by correctional and police officers Cullen39s version had the advantage of being published in a prominent forum and of articulating the theory systematically in a set of core propositions Formulated as a rejection of control perspective and the image of social life they conveyed Control theory reduced the human experience to internal feelings of selfdenial and to external relations marked by surveillance and punishment Social concern for others also was fundamental to the human condition Argued that the concept of social support was important not just to the physically and mentally ill but generally in society and thus that it also needed to be carefully interrogated into criminological thinking Thought it was foolish to propose a general theory of crime claiming to explain all criminal behavior and that all other perspectives were wrong Goal was to illuminate how social support might enrich our understanding of crime causation Theoretical Propositions Social support is the provision of assistance to another person 2 types Instrumental envisioned as giving someone the resources needed to reach a goal Expressive might involve boosting a child39s selfesteem after a failure listening to a friend express anger and frustration or hugging someone to validate the person39s worth and identity Social support can be objective and perceived be delivered by informal or formal government sources and exist at the micro and macro levels 14 propositions 3 core assertions 1 Social support reduces crime All other factors being equal individuals who receive more support and communities or nations with more support will experience less criminal conduct 2 Social support make control more effective Control occurs in social context Ample evidence exists that control is most effective when it is exerted as part of a supportive as opposed to a detached or punitive relationships 3 Social support reduces crime by increasing prosocial and decreasing antisocial influences 6 social support limits 1 Social support contributes to the healthy development of infants and children 2 The delivery of support is a conduit for prosocial learning it is a form of differential association that models prosocial behavior and reinforces conventional attitudes 3 Social support builds social bonds that tie people to the conventional order 4 Social support insulates against strain preventing its effects from being felt intensely or if experienced by serving as a factor increasing noncriminal coping 5 Social support reduces the stigmatizing effects of criminal labeling can foster positive identities among offenders encouraging them to envision a good life 6 On the macro level social support fosters government social welfare policies cultural values and community interrogation that help to diminish the effects of the root causes crime Assessing Social Support Theory Evidence suggests that a lack of support is related to negative health and behavioral outcomes including antisocial or criminal conduct Social support is a multifaceted concept whose effects are likely complex shaped by structural conditions and operating through social psychological processes The Consequences of Theory Policy Implications Control theory has suggested that regulation of the individual must come through policies fostering integration into the social order rather than through policies of isolation and punishment These perspectives teach us that attempts to reduce crime by quotget toughquot laws and harsh penalties through state punitive control are unlikely to be effective because they do little to establish any selfcontrol and social bonds that insulate against offending Early intervention programs often target parentchild attachment for improvement because weakened bonds are a risk factor for misconduct Stress the need for policies that assist the family in inculcating the favorable selfconcepts impulse control and frustration tolerance that can keep people out of trouble even in situations of weak external control Control theory suggests prevention and reintegration policies moving adults into stable social networks of employment and community activities but less has been done here than with programs for youths Also suggests a search for policies capable of demonstrating the payoff of hard work toward conventional goals to draw both adolescents and adults into positions of personal commitment in which there is too much of a stake in conformity to lose by a return to delinquency or crime Control theories are most impressive to the extent that a person accepts the larger social structure and conventional middleclass values as things to be taken for granted The systems that are to accomplish the regulation of the individuals at risk for crime and delinquency through their integration almost always are systems defined in conventional middleclass terms