Nutrition Lecture Notes: Lipids/Fats
Nutrition Lecture Notes: Lipids/Fats NUTR 213
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Notetaker on Tuesday October 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 213 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by George Loo in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 165 views. For similar materials see Intro to Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
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Date Created: 10/06/15
Chapter 5 Lipids Fats Phospholipids and Sterols Dietary fats 0 Animal sources meat cheese dairy 0 Plant sources vegetable oils nuts avocados chocolate 0 Hidden dietary fat French fries pizza pasta dishes salad dressings baked goods such as muffins Provide texture flavor aroma and taste to foods gt food addiction Help absorb fatsoluble vitamins Insulation cushion lubricant Lightweight long term storage of energy Recommendations for Fat intake Dietary Reference Intake 2035 of total cals Sensible to get calories mostly from plant rather than animal sources AHA recommendations 2535 of total kcal from fat from mostly fish nuts vegetable oils lt7 can come from saturated fat amp lt1 from transfat by restricting or limiting o 300 mg cholestrolday no longer in effect Food fats contain both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids Types of Fatty Acids 0 Saturated Fatty Acid I All carbon atoms are saturated with hydrogen atoms so that the carbon atoms are linked by single bonds 0 Stearic Acid another saturated fatty acid Monounsaturated Fatty Acid I Two adjacent carbon atoms are not saturated with hydrogen atoms 1 double bond is present I Oleic acid I Linelaid acid 2 double bonds I Alpha Linolenic acid 3 double bonds 0 Essential Fatty Acids I Cannot be synthesized made in the body so they are essential in the diet I Linoleic Acid and Linolenic Acid 0 Omega 6 vs Omega 3 fatty acids I Omegag 6 0 Excess in diet may increase inflammation blood clotting and heart attack risk 0000 00000 I Omega 3 0 Inclusion in diet may decrease inflammation blood clotting and heart attack risk 0 2 servings fishweek 0 Excess eg fish oil caps may cause hemorrhagic stroke 0 Hydrogenated Vegetable Oils Adding H to some CC hyd Hydrogenation solidifies vegetable oil but at cost of making a product containing transfat Increases food shelf life reduces rancidity Increases food appeal and taste Palm Oil has been replacing hydrogenated vegetable oil 0 Peanut Butter and Trans Fat Small amounts of hydrogenated vegetable oils added to peanut butter stops the peanut oil from separating out Lab analysis of 11 major store brands and natural peanut butter brands no detectable trans fats in any of the brands Oleic acid content 1927 Palmitic acid content 5 most abundant saturated fatty acid in all brands Types of lipids o Triglycerides Most common lipid in fats and oils Storage form of fat in body Fatty acids attached to a glycerol 0 Glycerol 3 Fatty Acid gt Triglyceride o Phospholipids Fatty acids and phosphate bonded to glycogen Main structural component of all cell membranes 0 Food Phospholipids Primary one lecithin Act as emulsifier surrounds oil droplets and permits mixing of oil in water Found in wheat germ peanuts soybeans organ meat some salad oil dressings and egg yolks o Sterols I Multi Ringed structure I Cholesterol is sterol found only in animal foods phytosterols in plant products can help reduce blood cholesterol levels Essential component of cell membranes Synthesized made by the liver Precursor to steroid sex hormones estrogen amp testosterone bile acids and Vitamin D UV Light Types of lipoproteins for lipid transport I Lipids are hydrophobic waterfearing they dont dissolve in blood mostly water I Lipids are surrounded by hydrophilic waterloving particles lipoproteins for transport in blood I Four types of lipoproteins o Chylomicrons o VLDL 0 LDL o HDL o Chylomicrons I Transport triglycerides cholesterol and fatsoluble vitamins from small intestine to liver I The triglycerides broken down into glycerol and fatty acids by lipoprotein lipase in blood vessels to cross fat cell and muscle cell membranes reassembled into triglycerides or undergo energy metabolism 0 VLDL very low density lipoprotein I Function similar to chylomicrons transport triglycerides that are broken down by lipoprotein lipase products taken up by fat and muscle cells 0 LDL Low density Lipoprotein I Transports cholesterol from liver to cells in other parts of body I LDL bind to LDL receptors on cells helps remove cholesterol from the blood I You want your low to be low 0 HDL High Density Lipoprotein I Transport cholesterol from cells to liver so cholesterol can be excreted reverse cholesterol transport Liver uses cholesterol to make bile You want your High to be high 390 Ehylerhiierene termed in the mueeeel eelle lease first inte the lymph erhieh direins inte the hleed 39l39hetr eiireelete in the bleed dEithEEiTilgl triiglltieetidee te lined eelle Dieter3r let l quoti Ehylernieren a What rem eine ef the ehtrlerhierene eehe iete meetly et eheleete rel etrtdl preteih Theee leeriielee Ch lagifgml travel til the titer te he dieeeeemhled eThe enzyme l ipepretein lipase 39ehieh is eresent en the suinieee et eellle llihlihg the bleed sneeeeler breelee deem the thiglyeerides in F eh emierene inte tetttfgtr ee iels ehdl g lyeerel These can then enter the eeirretlnding eelllet a HD39Le eiett Lie eheleetete hem ether tidep reteins end hethr eelle smell retuirh lit to the litter Some ei thi e ehel eeterel is hrehen dewn end eerhe is trenehrred te means with high teeuiremehts er eheleeterdl sueh es theee that synthesize etereid hermenes e 2 Few eeide H e r i quotIquot 9 ttlLlItlLe are made in the liner V ehd treneeeit liipide away treht the What remains ef the 39tI39LlEtlL litrer They tunetieni similarly te pertiel es sitter the triglycerides are ehyllemierene because both per elee rerheIred is either retumedl te delitier ttighteeridee te hedti eelle with the litter er 39tteheierrrted ih the the help et the enetrn39ie llipepretein liieeee h leed inte lLD L particles a Tede litrer eheleeterel LDL earlielee hihd tr e etetein en the eell membrane eelled ILEtL reeepteri This hindiing ellew e the whele LDL earliete te he remetreel hem eireuletien ehdl EffilEt the eeilt where the eheleeterell and ether eempenente eeh he ueed I Triglyceride I Gheleeterel I Phesehelieid l Pretein Ehylemieren 1ltquotLII L LUIL HiIJiL Ghylemierehe are the iergeet HEELS ere emeller then lLDlLe mntein e higher HUI 5 aria quotW FWIEETEWI 3m lipeerete ihe ehd eenteih the ehtrlerrtierehe hut etilll et t iltetihi eteeertien et eheleetere a 15 EWEEEI I39WPm tE39NS We gireetest ereeertien eli39 thigljiieerides e high ierepertien el triglyceridee i tii39ilalr39il de ether liipeereteine te their high pretein eententi Cardiovascular Disease 0 Development of Atherosclerosis Blood vessel injury inflammation and LDL oxidization produce plaques in vessel wall Plaques contain foam cell engorged with cholesterol 0 Consequences of Ath Atherosclerotic plaque can break through the blood vessel wall and stimulate clot formation to completely block blood flow In the heart this causes heart attack myocardial infarction or MI myocardiocyte death In the brain this causes stroke cerebral vascular accident or CVA neuron death gns of a heart attack 0 Intense prolonged chest pain Shortness of breath Sweating Nausea and vomiting Dizziness amp Weakness Jaw neck shoulder pain Irregular heartbeat Emergency medicine 0 Lowering BLood LDL See your doctor to assess for other conditions statin drugs may be prescribed Reduce dietary trans fat saturated fat and cholesterol Increase MUFA and PUFA Increase dietam fiber soluble consider phytosterols vegetable oils whole grains nuts and legumes 0 Raising Blood HDL regular physical activity don t smoke less dietary fat Moderate intake of alcohol increases HDL Pre menopausal women have higher HDL estrogen effect