Social Psychology Week Ten Notes
Social Psychology Week Ten Notes 21198
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caspar Snyder on Friday October 31, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 21198 at University at Buffalo taught by Mark Seery in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 48 views.
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Date Created: 10/31/14
Social Psychology Week Ten Rating of Job Applicant 100 90 80 70 60 50 lltalian 40 ljewish 30 20 10 O Positive Feedback Negative Feedback Italian people are the in group and Jewish people are the out group Increase in SelfEsteem 5 45 4 35 3 25 I Italian 2 ljewish 15 1 05 O Positive Feedback Negative Feedback They felt better after trashing out group member Implications Example of existing prejudice 0 Beyond stereotype formation Minimal group forced choice 0 Favor in group over out group Fein and Spencer not forced choice 0 Only rated one Woman 0 Punished out group 0 only after personal failure 0 Discrimination to aid selfmaintenance I Even if seemingly unrelated Social In uence Part 1 Social in uence how people s behavior is affected by pressure from others 0 In uence versus persuasion o Persuasion affects attitude 0 in uence changes behavior I Behavior versus attitude 0 Pressure ranges from implicit to explicit 0 From noticing others to receiving a direct order Three Types Conformity Yielding to perceived group pressure by copying the behavior andor beliefs of others Compliance Acting in accord with a request Obedience Performing an action in response to a direct order 0 Not a given choice Conformity Conformity is extremely common A few vivid examples 0 Junior high 0 Huge social transition I Fashion 0 The wave Candid Camera Video Which direction do you face in an elevator 0 You face the door What if no one else does 0 No one says anything 0 But people conform to the direction the others are facing Conformity Classic studies of conformity 0 Sherif 1936 autokinetic effect study 0 Asch 1951 line length study KNOW BOTH OF THESE NAMES Sherif 1936 Autokinetic effect 0 Illusion spot of light in dark room seems to move Method 0 Dark room 0 Spot of light on wall for two seconds 0 Participants judge how far light moved 0 First day alone 0 Next few days with two other participants Results 0 Overtime 0 Estimates converge Asch 1951 Line length study Method Study of visual discrimination 0 Six others in session 0 All sit around a table 0 Judge the length of a line 0 Say answers aloud Twists Six others in the session 0 All confederates All sit around a table 0 Five of the six sit before the participant 0 Participant says answer last First of two trials say correct answer Twelve of next sixteen unanimously wrong Results What would you do What do you think the participants did 0 Conform 75 conformed on at least one trial 50 conformed on half of the trials or more 25 never conformed Asch versus Sherif Similarities 0 High levels of conformity 0 Show power others have on our perceptions Differences 0 Sherif task was difficult 0 Now way to know distance traveled for certain I Optical allusion o Physical reality was ambiguous 0 Asch task was simple o Physical reality was clear I Everyone knew what the correct answer was Why Do We Conform Normative in uence 0 We fear the consequences of being deviant Information in uence 0 We want to be correct in our judgments 0 When we doubt our own judgment 0 we look to others I Example watching other people getting on a subway in an unknownnew city Sherif or Asch 0 Sherif information in uence 0 Asch normative in uence Compliance Compliance techniques focus on getting people to agree to a request Cialdini 1993 Four rules 1 Reciprocity Idea we feel obligated to return favors 0 Social norm an expected standard of behavior and belief in a group Example Kunz and Woolcott 1976 0 Sent Christmas cards to strangers 0 What happened 0 Inundated with cards 0 200 people sent cards back I Fifteen years later still getting cards Benefit 0 Encourages exchange of goods and services 0 Easier to take the first step I Example housesitting Research Example Regen 1971 0 Participants and confederate in art appreciation study 0 Manipulation brings two Cokes or none during break 0 Unsolicited favor Versus none 0 After study confederate sells raf e tickets 0 Results Results Twice as many sold after favor Liking for confederate 0 No Coke condition 0 Increased liking more tickets 0 Coke condition 0 Liking didn t matter Exploiting Reciprocity Implications we ll do things for people 0 if they Ve done something for us 0 eVen if we don t like them Example Hare Krishna has gone through its ups and downs Hare Krishnas Chanting for donations 0 Typical reactions 0 For most weird Giving gifts in airports etc 0 Typical reaction 0 Funding explosion Hard times 0 Wary of strangers now 0 We ve caught on More Exploitation Role of surprise 0 Can increase compliance Other examples 0 Traveling monk at UB o Talks to you and hands you a book for free I Then asks for a donation after you ve already taken the book Return address stickers in the mail 0 Or nickels dimes etc 0 Not necessary to want gift 0 Hare Krishnas most owers were thrown away More Exploitation Not necessary to want the gift Free samples at supermarkets 0 Feel obligated to buy the product 0 Increases product sales Easiest way to resist 0 Don t accept the gift 0 Decreases chance of guilt Wining and Dining Book representative leaves cookie 0 Feel obligated to at least meet with here 0 Or adopt her textbook Salesperson takes client out 0 I ll pay for it Typical heterosexual date who pays for dinner 0 What is implicitly expected in return 0 Man expects sex or timeattention 0 Study women who accept free drinks judged o More sexually available 0 By both men and women I Encourages sexual assault and date rape 0 Not her fault though Reciprocal Concessions Not just with gifts 0 If I give ground you give ground Doorintheface technique 0 Example contract negotiations 0 In uencer makes extreme offer 0 Denied 0 Counteroffers with reasonable one o More likely to be accepted 0 If first offer is too extreme 0 Not bargaining in good faith 0 No genuine concession Cialdini et al 1975 Condition one 0 Would you chaperone delinquents at the zoo for free 0 17 said yes Condition two 0 First request 0 Counsel delinquents two hrsweek for two years I All refused 0 Second request 0 Chaperone request 0 50 said yes Other Findings After reciprocal concessions 0 Feel manipulated 0 Actually eg Benton et al 1972 0 Feel more responsible for agreement 0 Feel more satisfied 0 Combo 0 More likely to fallow through o More likely to agree to future favors 0 First one to make move has upper hand Additional Advantage Example loan me 20 0 Or first ask for 100 0 Which 20 seems larger 0 The 20 when asked for first Perceptual contrast 0 Familiar heuristic o Anchoring and adjustment If we anchor an extreme request 0 moderate seems more appealing 2 Consistency and Commitment Sound familiar 0 Thoughts and attitude consistency 0 How might this Work o Things make sense when things are consistent After We Make a Commitment We Want to Act Consistently Example toy company postholiday slump Toy company strategy Hype up toy around holidays 0 Kids Want it 0 Parents promise it commitment Undersupply stores 0 Parents can t get it replace it for holidays Hype up toy after holidays 0 Kids still Want it Parents already committed 0 Buy toy to honor commitment Lowball Technique Example offer low price on car reason to buy Get decision commitment to buy Let me check with the manager to nalize Can t do it regular price What happens 0 More likely to follow through 0 Still buy it 0 Made commitment to buy something 0 Original reason low price is gone 0 Selfgenerated reasons commitment remain Also bait and switch 0 All sold out of that model Here s a more expensive one o Likely to buy the new TV
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