BS2004 Lecture 3: Eukaryotic Organelles
BS2004 Lecture 3: Eukaryotic Organelles BS2004
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Loges Gobi on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BS2004 at Nanyang Technological University taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Molecular and Cell Biology in Biological Sciences at Nanyang Technological University.
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Date Created: 10/07/15
LECTURE 3 EUKARYOTIC ORGANELLES Nuclear envelope Centriole Lysosome llucleolus hromatin Nuclear pore Nucleus Mitochondrion Vacuole Plasma membrane Ribosomes Golgi complex Micro laments reticulum Microtubule Rough endoplasmic reticulum Organelle subcellular membraneenclosed compartment that has a distinct structure composition and function Origin of organelles the plasma membrane gt genome attached to plasma membrane gt inward folding of membrane eventually forms nuclear envelope 3 components of biological membrane 1 Lipids barrier to prevent movement of hydrophilic materials in and out of organelles 2 Proteins contribute to functions of the membrane 3 Carbohydrates glycoprotein or glycolipid covalently attached asymmetrically localized located at extracellular space Classification of membrane lipids Phosphoglyceride Membrane lipids Membrane proteins Sphingolipid Cholesterol are amphipathic having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions Capable of selfassembly where they spontaneously form lipid bilayer in an aqueous environment Consist of 2 lea ets cytoplasmic lea et and extracellular lea et Impermeable to hydrophilic molecules Free diffusion within each lea et but ip op is prohibited 1 Integral membrane proteins transmembrane gt could be predicted by primary sequence of protein transmembrane domain has continuous stretch of hydrophobic amino acids 2 Peripheral membrane proteins gt attach to integral membrane proteins or lipids and cycle between the cytosol and membrane Peripheral membrane proteins are more easily dissociated under harsh chemical conditions Endoplasmic reticulum Nuclear envelope Golgi complex largest organelle consisting of membrane sheets and tubules gt continuous membrane and luminal space highly dynamic tubules extending and shrinking rough ER rER gt attached with ribosomes and functions to synthesize secretory proteins smooth ER sER gt devoid of ribosomes ER exit site gt COPII coated membrane bulge that recruits and exports secretory proteins synthesized in the ER nuclear envelope 2 units of membrane Nuclear pore aqueous channel and only type of connections between nucleus and cytosol gt has 8fold rotational symmetry and facilitates nucleocytoplasmic trafficking many ministacks laterally connected by membrane A golgi ministack consists of 47 membrane sacs called cisternae and is polarized cisGolgi network CGN cis medial trans and transGolgi network TGND gt secretory cargoes enter at cis side and exit at trans side Initiation of Oglycosylation and modification of the N glycosylation gt processing of olgisaccharides is sequential Golgi resident enzymes glycosidase cut sugars and glycosyl transferase adding sugar subunits elsewhere gt enzymes involved in early reaction steps localized at cis Mitochondrion Chloroplast Cilium face and those involved in late reaction steps localized at transface Long rods running along microtubules 2 units of membrane outer and inner gt proton gradient and ATP generation across inner membrane Intermembrane space Matrix consist of circular DNA and ribosomes Evolutionary origin endosymbiosis Rickettsias Consist of outer membrane intermembrane space inner membrane no cristae stroma circular DNA and ribosomes and thylakoid ETC located on thylakoid membrane and proton gradient is generated across thylakoid membrane ATP production and carbon fixation Evolutionary origin endosymbiosis Cyanobacteria Plasma membrane protrusion ensheating a bundle of microtubules Axoneme bundle of microtubules which extends from basal body centrioles gt 2 centrioles form centrosome Motile long motile cilium also called agellum Primary cilium nonmotile cilium gt almost all cells in human body have cilia and serve as sensor or antenna
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