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Week 4 Assigned Readings

by: Alex

Week 4 Assigned Readings IAFF 1005

GPA 4.4
Intro to International Affairs
Susan Sell

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About this Document

Here are the notes on the assigned readings for this week, Michael Hudson, "To Play the Hegemon" Pages 329-343
Intro to International Affairs
Susan Sell
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IAFF 1005 at George Washington University taught by Susan Sell in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Intro to International Affairs in International Studies at George Washington University.

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Date Created: 10/07/15
IAFF 1005 To Play The Hegemon 922 Michael Hudson Pgs 329343 The quotholy trinityquot of US interests within the Middle East consists of Israel oil and anti communism Because of the quothon trinityquot the US president has many powers within the Middle East The president is able to call on leaders of most Middle Eastern governments to support his political plans The US can write domestic economic policy for many governments within the Middle East The US gains access and acceptance form North Africa to the Gulf New information technology allows Middle Easter cultures to gain an insight into US influenced values fashions and political morals US Policv Since WWII Containing Soviet Communism WW marked the quotgreat dividequot in US relations to the Middle East US policy wanted to contain the Soviet Union through military alliances such as NATO NATO failed as is proved by the Middle East Command proposal Middle East Defense Organization 19511952 Baghdad Pact 1955 etc This generated a lot of animosity rather than security in the Arab world As far as Syria and Egypt were concerned Israel was the real threat not the Soviet Union Uprisings in the Middle East during the 503 and 60s evoked responses from the US that were improvised and contradictory The US wanted to contain Iranian nationalism and greatly opposed the nationalist uprisings in Syria and Iraq The collapse of the Soviet Union greatly damaged Arab nationalism and the rejectionist movement were already being detained by their own political handicaps Access to Oil 0 wasn t a strategic resource until WWII US saw value in the Middle East during WWII as a cheap substitute to decreasing US resources the oil driven post war development of the West The quotArab oil weaponquot vanished by 1986 when the price of world oil prices collapsed Now the main problem for the US was guaranteeing that Arab Gulf Cooperation Council regimes were protected from a whole variety of threats both regional and exogenous Israeli and Soviet Suoloort for Israel Although US support for Israel has been solid since 1967 policy debate was very bitter in the 403 due to Palestine In 1967 the US was 30 impressed Isralel s military powered Arab weakness that they were finally convinced that Israel could serve as a benefit to the US Tedays Israel is a Middle Eastern superpowerquot IAFF 1005 To Play The Hegemon 922 Michael Hudson Pgs 329343 Camp David brought Israel geostrategic security and acted as a stepping stone to regional hegemony For the US Camp David brought three benefits Israel was secured Arab s capability for collective action was diminished The Soviets were once again marginalized The Madrid Plan was to be a loosely bilateral agreement among Israel and its39 many Arab aggressors and a multilateral dimension with states throughout the Middle East and the industrial world It was designed to create a new Middle East with Israel at the heart The Triumph of American Policv The main problem was the Soviet threat to security The presence of Soviet power in the Middle East would shift the world balance Soviet control of MiddleEastern oil has the potential to disrupt the economy of the free world The success of communism in this region could lead to the success of communism in Asia Africa and Europe The ArabIsraeli conflict lingered over the Middle East like a quotpoisonous doudquot US commitment to Israel was to to its independent existence Now The Soviet Union has collapsed Israel has become a regional powerhouse pan Arabism is a spent force and Arab oil is in the hands of peaceful states US hegemony succeeded The PolicvMaking Process Quandt reviews three policymaking models in the terms of US policy and the Arab Israeli conflict Bureaucratic bargaining which sees policies as the outcome of interagency rivalries Strategic rational analysis rooted in classical national interest conception of international politics Domestic policies Congress lobbies and the electoral cycle affect outcomes Most important factor is the view taken by the US president and his closest advisors Quandt doe3n t believe that US policy on the Middle East is mostly the expression of Israel or oil lobby Both of these lobbies have made a great impact Present amp Future Organizing A New Middle East Hegemons are typically held to higher standards than the other states in the system their moral responsibilities increase with their power and influence The main 81W in Britain s flaw as a hegemony was that they never realized the responsibility that their power and dominance had thrust upon them IAFF 1005 To Play The Hegemon 922 Michael Hudson Pgs 329343 Washington s New Middle East There are two ways to look at US Middle Eastern policy today Modest selfeffacing visions that come from diplomats who are trying to do their best in a difficult situation The policymaking process in Washington DC is too clumsy and unorganized for long term planning US policy was never just reactive and ad hoc Those who are the top of the policymaking process are pursuing an unrealistic agenda for creating a new Middle East If the US had itS way the old Arab state system would be replaced by a new Middle East that had new regional economic projects integrating Israel Turkey and other Mediterranean states There would be effort made to fight and expose terrorism from this region The US would reform domestic economic and financial policies to meet market economies viable private sectors and global connections Limited political liberalization would overall be encouraged The Peace Process A big accomplishment for the US was being able to bring the Palestinian leadership and the Israeli government into a negotiating process Gulf Securit A big success for the US was the second Gulf War in 1991 A decisive and inexpensive military victory lead to the independence of Kuwait as well as enhanced the security of Saudi Arabia and its GCC neighbors in the shortterm by decreasing IraQ s power The USS GCC allies were now almost completely reliant upon the US for military security There became a troubling perception of the US as an insensitive hegemony because of its39 policy of sanctions on Iraq Political Islam Public debate over Islam is usually muddled by stereotypes and degrading analysis TOdaY s radical Islamism is the ideological cutting edge for a multifaceted resistance in Muslim societies against Western influence and integration The Democratization Puzzle Many people believe democratization can promote regional peace and economic growth in the Middle East The US worries about forcing democratic reform in the region We worry about whether new democracies will be able to carry out the tasks needed to endure Others worry about antiAmerican influences winning power IAFF 1005 To Play The Hegemon 922 Michael Hudson Pgs 329343 The US has been accused of using force and oppression in the Middle East The US is being faced with the task of encouraging openings of democracy without overstepping imperialistically To Plav the Hegemon Is the US a benign hegemony A vast majority of the US wants a peaceful stable and prosperous Middle East Will US hegemony be harmful The Middle East already seems to think so The US led United Nations sanctions air raids on Tripoli and Banghazi etc Hegemony usually ends up producing resistance There will always be problems under a harmful hegemony the problems will be vastly worse


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