Chapter 7: The Biosphere
Chapter 7: The Biosphere Geology 103-004
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Holly Ciampaglio on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Geology 103-004 at University of South Carolina taught by Raymond Torres in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Environment of the Earth in Geology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/07/15
Chapter 7 The Biosphere Biosphere Structure and Functioning Biosphere a thin layer of life forms living in on and above Earths other environmental systems Organisms die in response to changing environmental conditions Organisms modify environments Ecosystem an assemblage of organisms together with physical and chemical environments Energy for life Photosynthesis and Respiration Energy used for gt Replacing dying cells gt Ridding of wastes gt Growth and reproduction gt Defense Photosynthesis nd new species of bacteria and use C02 water in sunlight to create organic matter and oxygen and storing the suns energy in the form of glucose Respiration animals and bacteria consume organic matter in presence of oxygen releasing stored energy to function and produce C02 Nutrients and Biochemical Cycles The Carbon Cycle Circulation in the lithosphere deep ocean fossil fuels soils atmosphere surface ocean and terrestrial organisms Carbon is removed by chemical weathering diffusion of surface ocean and photosynthesis C02 water vapor falls as carbonic acid Causes minerals to dissolve into calcium and bicarbonate ions The Nitrogen Cycle Doesn t constitute a signi cant proportion of the lithosphere Inert gas making it unavailable to organisms unless they eat plants or animals that eat plants Ammoni cation protein molecules breaking down after plants die by releasing ammonia Nitri cation bacteria oxides part of ammonium to nitrite and then to nitrate Denitri cation natural conversion from nitrate to nitrous oxide to nitrogen through the action of microbes The Phosphorus Cycle Phosphorus is a limiting nutrient for life Found in water as mineral apatite in soils rocks teeth and bones and as mineral dust in the atmosphere Cycling of phosphorus is dependent on slowacting geologic processes such as gt Weathering of rocks gt Transport of sediments in streams gt Decay of terrestrial plants gt Circulation of ocean water Phosphates are less dense than deeper water when warmed by the sun inhibiting the mix of surface and deep water Phosphate exports to bottom waters Returns phosphate to dissolved state Dissolved phosphate is carried back to the surface 0 Trophic Levels and Food Chains Food chains determine how matter and energy ow through biological communities AutotrophsPrimary producers capable of producing their own energy therefore they are the base of the food chain HeterotrophsConsumers must eat plantsanimals to get energy Detritivores animals that consume dead organic matter Scavengers Coprovores Competition and Cooperation lntraspeci c competition of individuals of the same species lnterspeci c competition of individuals of different species Ecological succession replacement of one community of organisms with another Mutualists species that bene t from interactions Commensalism one group bene ting one unaffected Amensalism one group is harmed one bene ts Population Growth Carrying Capacity Equation for exponential growth dNdt rN N number of individuals t time r difference of death rate and birth rate net growth Exponential growth formula N Noert N0 starting population e constant value of 2718 Geometric Growth N No1rt Logistic Equation dNdt rN x KNK K carrying capacity or max population Predatorprey cycles the effect of how many predators and prey have on the other Resilience population recovering from climate and weather change and changing ecosystems Biomes Habitats and Ecological Niches Biomes biological communities determined by climate geology and topography Tropical rain forest Tropical seasonal forestsavanna Subtropical desert Woodland Temperate rain forest Temperate seasonal forest Temperate grasslanddesert Boreal forest Tundra Habitats within biomes where organisms live based on food water and shelter needs Ecological niche habitat in which an organism lives and the way it lives o Biodiversity climatic topographic geologic Genetic diversity describes genetic variation among individuals within a population Inbreeding production of offspring by related individuals Species diversity describes number and types of species on Earth Endemic species restricted to a location Species richness number of species in an area habitat or taxonomic group Ecosystem Services natural processes that occur within the biosphere that create or maintain environmental assets of bene t to humans 0 Services Production of environmental goods lumber food breathable atmosphere Pollination of crops Native vegetation Water puri cation c As habitats degrade humans replace natural processes Human Impacts on the Biosphere Human Population Growth ExponenUaHy Wars and disease outbreaks effect population 0 Human Impacts on Biochemical Cycles Humans altering the nitrogen cycle Increasing cultivation of nitrogen xing legumes Use of fossil fuels to produce synthetic fertilizer Incomplete sewage treatment Algal blooms rapid growth of algae in response to nutrient ovedoad Eutrophication nutrientinduced oxygen depletion 0 Habitat Fragmentation Farming urban development disrupts habitats Habitats are transformed for human use dwindling the existing species 0 Exotic Species Species get out of control in changednew environments Die out or mutate in changed conditions 0 Extinctions and Loss of Biodiversity Extinct no reasonable doubt an individual species remains alive on earth Extirpated no longer alive in one area but found in another Former mass extinctions caused by natural forces Current mass extinction caused by human activities Endangered population less than 2500 individuals according to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Critically Endangered population less than 250 Population viability analysis quantitative methods to study future status of a population or group Demographic uncertainty results from unexpected effects of reproduction resulting in skewed sex ratios Environmental uncertainty unpredictable weather changes in food supply new competitors and unpredictable events Natural catastrophes extreme cases of environmental uncertainty oods res storms that have dramatic impact on populations Genetic uncertainty populations under 50 individuals prone to problems that deal with inbreeding Endemic species found in one location and no where else 0 Restoration Ecology Investigates destroyed ecosystems habitats and their response to activities meant to improve ecosystem structure and function Goal of ecological restoration is maintaining ecosystem services and goods
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