Outline for Chapter 5
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Stimuli O 0 II Pavlov CHAPTER 5 BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF LEARNING SLAVIN 11TH ED WHAT IS LEARNING Define learning A change in an individual caused by experience Two ways learning takes place Intentional Unintentional Define Environmental conditions that activates the senses Plural stimuli singular stimulus What Behavioral Learning Theories Have Evolved Classical Conditioning Define The process of repeatedly associating a previously neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus in order to evoke a conditioned response Russian physiologist studying the digestive process in dogs B Skinner III A Unconditioned Stimulus US A stimulus that naturally evokes a particular response Unconditioned Response UR A behavior that is prompted automatically by a stimulus Neutral Stimuli Stimuli that have no effect on a particular response Conditioned Stimulus CS A previously neutral stimulus that evokes a particular response after having been paired with an unconditioned stimulus Conditioned Response CR An innate response to a potent stimulus comes to be elicited in response to a previously neutral stimulus this is achieved by repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus with the potent stimulus Process US food IUR salivation NS bell NOT quotD UR US food NSbell UR CS bell l CR Significance for the classroom Advertising classroom climate attitudes toward school and learning test anxiety Operant Conditioning Why is it called operant Because they operate on the environment in the apparent absence of any unconditioned stimuli such as food Skinner s work focuses on the relation between behavior and its consequences Define Operant conditioning The use of pleasant or unpleasant consequences to control the occurrence of behavior Skinner Box A device that contains a very simple apparatus for studying the behavior of animals usually rats and pigeons WHAT ARE SOME PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIORAL LEARNING The Role of Consequences Behavior changes according to its immediate consequences pleasurable consequences strengthen behavior unpleasurable consequences weaken behavior Reinforcers Define A pleasurable consequence that maintains or increases a behavior Primary Reinforcers Satisfies basic needs Ex Food water security warmthamp sex Secondary Reinforcers A consequence that people learn to value through its relationship with a primary reinforcer Ex social reinforcers praise smiles hugs attention activity reinforcers toys games fun activities token reinforcers money grades stars points Positive ReinforcerzPresentation of desired consequence to strengthen a behavior Ex if they strengthen the behavior grades praise and attention Negative Reinforcer removal of an aversive stimulus following a response Slavin release from an undesired consequence to strengthen behavior opposite of punishment Ex if they strengthen behavior a student is released from timeout or other isolating situation The Premack Priniciple aka Grandma s rule Using favored activies to reinforce less favored ones Ex allowing students to go to the library or gym recessetc once their work is completed Classroom uses of Reinforcement see Theory into Practice p 126 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reinforcers Intrinsiczpleasure inherent in task itself Extrinsicreward money social attention otherwise forget it Deci amp Ryan 2002 showed what There is evidence that reinforcing children for certain behaviors they would have done anyway can undermine long term intrinsic motivation BUT what is the message for educators Use reinforcers that are social and that communicate recognition of students growing mastery and independence Check out the practical reinforcers on pp 127 128 0 Self Reinforcement Students praise themselves Praise Good Job smiling thumbs up Attention Listening nodding moving closer to seem engaged Grades and recognition Communicate good marks with family Call Home powerful to involve parents Homebased reinforcement arrange special privileges at home for the students Privileges Free time access to equipment etc Activity Reinforcers Playing games Tangible Reinforcers Earn points in exchange for toys or stickers etc Food OOOOOOOOO Punishers Define punishment In operant conditioning punishment is any change in a human or animal39s surroundings that occurs after a given behavior or response which reduces the likelihood of that behavior occurring again in the future As with reinforcement it is the behavior not the animal that is punished Presentation punishment presentation of undesired consequences to weaken a behavior Ex if they weaken a behavior scolding detention name on board fine Removal punishment removal of desired consequence to weaken a behavior Ex if they weaken the behavior time out loss of privileges Response Cost Charging a cost to students who are behaving inappropriately such as a minute of detention after school for every minute off task Time out Removal punishment in which a student who misbehaves is required to sit in the corner or in the hall for several minutes Sit and Watch Children who misbehave were told what they had done wrong and were given a 3 minute sand timer and asked to sit and watch until the sand ran out Reduced misbehavior but didn t get rid of it Commentary on use of reinforcement vs punishment 0 Why bad rap Overuse harshness 0 P can lead to avoidance resentment of the punisher E P can lead to aggression in the one being punished Effects often temporary Use mildest form that will work avoid punishing out of frustration or anger Give yourself time to respond I will think about the consequence Are your rewards reinforcing Anzelc suggests Maintain 41 ratio of us of Rs over Ps OOOOOO Immediacy of consequences Principle Consequences that follow behaviors closely in time after behavior far more than delayed consequences 2 purposes 1 Connects behavior and consequence 2 Increases the informational value of feedback Catch them being good Shaping When you guide students towards goals by reinforcing the many steps that lead to success The term shaping is used in behavioral learning theories to refer to the teaching of new skills or behaviors by reinforcing learners for approaching the desired final behavior Extinction Define eliminatingweakening behavior by withdrawing it Extinction Burst the increase in levels of behavior in the early stages of extinction has important consequences for classroom management Adults often make mistake of giving in during this stage of extinction further strengthening the very behaviors they are trying to eliminate How can a Cue or Signal Help Extinction of a previously learned behavior can be hastened when some stimulus or cue informs the individual that behaviors that were once encouraged will no longer be reinforced Schedules of Reinforcement Refers to the frequency with which reinforcers are given the amount of time that elapses between opportunities for reinforcement and the predictability of reinforcement Fixed Ratio FR I Examples I Commission play I FRl 1 report 3 points I FR5 5 stamps 1 HW pass I Coke Machine I During Reinforcement I Steady RR with pause after reinforcement I During Extinction I Rapid drop in RR after reinforcer is withheld Variable Ratio VR I Examples I Slot machine 0 Old car w bad starter I Recess when enough wor 0 Kids Begging I During Reinforcement I Steady high RR 0 Gambling addictions 0 Kids keep it up knowing an adult will eventually give in Fixed Interval FI I Examples 0 Salary Paycheck 0 Pizza Party every Friday 0 Scheduled exams observations I During Reinforcement I Uneven rate increase at each end of interval cramming I During Extinction 0 Rapid Drop after reinforcement is withheld Variable Interval VI I Examples 0 Salary Bonuses 0 Random spot checks drug tests 0 Pop quizzes I During Reinforcement I Steady high RR Work regularly keep up stay clean I During Extinction 0 Slow Decrease in response rate Study Table 52 on P 133 Maintenance Role of natural reinforcers Natural reinforcement is similarly simple Sometimes we use contrived reinforcement to teach a child to do something and sometimes this is appropriate because it is more immediate 0 Which schedules of reinforcement are most resistant to extinction therefore maintain behavior over time The reason that variable schedules of reinforcement and schedules that require many behaviors before reinforcement is given are much more resistant to extinction than are xed schedules or easy ones IV A The Role of Antecedents 1 Antecedent Stimuli Events that precede a behavior 2 Cues Signals as to which behaviors will be reinforced or punished Telling students that an assignment will be worth ten points 3 Discrimination Perception of and response to differences in stimuli Praising students for correct responses and providing feedback for incorrect responses student act differently in math vs cafeteria 4 Generalization Define and list techniques Carryover of behaviors skills or concepts from one setting or task to another Students are taught to respond to lights out with silence regardless of what area of the school they are in classroom gym and cafeteria There are many techniques for increasing the chances that a behavior learned in one setting such as a given class will generalize to other settings such as other classes or more importantly reallife applications Use examples especially examples from different contexts Repeat HOW HAS SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY CONTRIBUTED TO OUR UNDERSTANDING OF HUMAN LEARNING Bandura Modeling and Observational Learning 1 Modeling The imitation of others behavior and of vicarious experience learning from others successes or failures 2 4 Phases of Observational Learning Attentional Phase attractive successful interesting and popular Retention Phase practice and rehearse Reproduction Phase compare performance to model Motivational Phase chance of reinforcement 3 Vicarious Learning Define refers to an instructional method that occurs when learners see andor hear a learning situation ie a observed learner in an instructional situation for which they are not the addressees and do not interact with the observed learner nor the observed learner39s instruction Tell results of Study of Edwin and Greg 2 disruptive 2nd graders sat next to each other After a baseline period the teacher began to notice and praise Edwin whenever he was paying attention and doing is classwork Edwin s behavior improved markedly under this condition Of greatest interest however is that Greg s behavior also improved even though no specific reinforcement for appropriate behavior was directed toward him Tell about the classic Bandura 1965 experiment 0 Phase 1 Children were shown 1 of 3 films of adult modeled aggressive behavior I Group 1serverely punished I Group 2praised and given treats I Group 3no consequences 0 Phase 2 Children observed playing with toys 0 Results The children who had seen the model punished engaged in signi cantly fewer aggressive acts in their own play than did the children who had seen the model rewarded or had viewed the film with no consequences 0 Theory into Practice we learn both consequences and strategies by observing 4 SelfRegulated Learning The ability to think and solve problems without the help of others Students who have the knowledge of effective learning strategies and how and when to use them Meichenbaum s Model of SelfRegulated Learning 1 Cognitive Behavior Modification Students can be taught to monitor and regulate their own behaviors Self regulated learning of this kind are often called cognitive behavior modification 2 Meichenbaum s Strategy 1977 Students are trained to ask themselves what What is my problem What is my plan Am I using my plan How did I do Has been used for to reduce disruptive behavior of students at many grade levels Steps in SelfInstruction a Cognitive Modeling An adult model performs a task while talking to self out loud b Overt external guidance The child performs the same task under the direction of the model s instruction c Overt selfguidance The child performs the task while instructing selfaloud d Faded overt selfguidance The child whispers the instructions to self as he or she goes through the task e Covert selfguidance The child performs the task while guiding his or her performance via private speech Know how a Task Completion Form is used Breaking down a complex or long task into sub categories groups that are smaller and make the student feel like they are making progress towards the overall goal of completing the whole task Also Meichenbaum was in uenced by Vygotsky note how this relates to private speech 4 SelfReinforcement Study by Drabman Spitalnik amp O Leary 1973 Teachers rated student behaviors and then had the kids guess what that rating was Students were rewarded for guessing correctly Finally the reinforcers were gradually removed How did that program affect their behavior The student s behavior improved under the reinforcement and guessing conditions and it remained at its improved level long after the program was ended Classnotes On the test there will be four situations involving school schedule look at chart on blackboard Immediacy of Consequences Connect the act and the consequence GIVE CLEAR SPECIFIC MESSAGES Try to quotCatch them being goodquot but be careful avoid interrupting productive effort Shaping breaks tasks into parts Extinction Eliminatedecrease behavior by removing consequence Extinction Burst Expect it to get worse before it gets better Misbehavior increases before it gives up Cues signals antecedents of what39s coming up Then we can discriminate or generalize our behavior Discrimination Responding to differences b vs d then vs than vs regular teacher vs sub requires feedback on correctness and incorrectness Generalization Responding to similarities carryover from one setting or task to another In school cant be assumed students need remindersinstruction and relevant activities variety of expedences SociaI Learning Theories Emphasize the effect of CUES on THOUGHT and the effect of THOUGHT on ACTIONS Meichenbaum Self Regulated Learning Vygotslq in uence a Cognitive Behavior Modi cation b Self Completion forms c Self reinforcement study Drabman et al 1973 Factors that enhance Long Term memory 0 Concepts gt Names Retention goes down a few weeks after instruction 1224 weeks remembered maybe forever 0 Effects of ability unclear Active Involvement gt less loss 10 vs 40 Mackenzie amp White 1982 0 Accounting students loss after 6 weeks Role play vs Traditional Role Play ess