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If Megan isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!
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Date Created: 10/07/15
Megan Shelton 9302015 PHONOLOGY To speak a language you need to know more than just the sounds in that language 0 Knowing the IPA does not equal polyglot Q We need to know how the sounds of a language are able to combine into meaningful sound patterns The phonological component of a language s grammar determines what combinations of sounds are possible and which are not Q How do we segment the speech stream 0 How do sounds interact with each other 0 How do syllables stress and intonation differ crosslinguistically PHONOLOGY Phonotactics of a language are the set of constraints on how sound segments can be arranged Prosodic phonology deals with suprasegmental features such as stress and intonation Segmental phonology is concerned with how sounds interact when they are close to each other PHONOTACTICS Syllabl a unit of phonological organization typically larger than a segment and smaller than a word A syllable is the smallest unit of sound that can be pronounced all by itself THE SYLLABLE Fact All words are made up of syllables 0 Some words have one syllable some have may Syllables are made up of Q A nucleus eg a vowel 0 An onset before the nucleus 0 A coda after a nucleus 0 The nucleus and coda together form the rhyme English allows for complex onsets and codas Different languages allow for different amounts of complexity in onsets and codas RESTRICTIONS ON ENGLISH SYLLABLE STRUCTURE Acceptable Nuclei in English 0 All the vowels of English are acceptable nuclei 0 But m n I and J can also be for some speakers 0 We use the IPA symbol to mark a syllabic consonant HOW TO SYLLABIFY ENGLISH WORDS Q How many syllables are there 0 How many parts of the word can be said in isolation 0 Identify the nuclei 0 These are usually vowels but not for all languages 0 Every syllable must minimally have a nucleus 0 Maximize the Onset Q If a combination of sounds can start a word in English it can be in the onset 0 Create Codas O The consonants that could not fit into the onset become codas AMBISYLLABICITY Be aware 0 Sometimes certain segments might sound like they are part of the coda of one syllable and the onset of the next syllable PROSODY WORD STRESS English stress is extremely complex but here s some generalizations 0 All words have a syllable that has a main stress 0 Words with three or more syllables might have a syllable with secondary stress I O Phonology O Phonological 0 Two syllable nouns have main stress on the first syllable 0 Two syllable verbs have main stress on the second syllable 0 Compound nouns stress the first part while compound verbs usually stress the second part INTONATION Q Uptalk which is a feature of younger especially female speakers of North American English is a rising intonation on statements 0 This pattern of intonation is by no means universal SEGMENTAL PHONOLOGY DISTINCTCONTRASTIVE SOUNDS All the sounds of the world s languages have unique acoustic properties 0 Individual languages make use of a subset If we substitute one sound for another within a word this can change the meaning of the word see Lecture 1 If we can substitute one sound for another and change the meaning like above we conclude that the two sounds are phonologically distinctcontrastive NONDISTINCTNONCONTRASTIVE SOUNDS Every language has a set of contrastive sounds but also a set of sounds that are not distinct from the contrastive sounds and show up in predictable contexts In English Nasalized vowels and aspirated stops are not contrastive MINIMAL PAIRSSETS The best way to discover if a pair of sounds are contrastive in a language is to try to find minimal pairs 0 Minimal pairs a set of two words in a language with the same structure differing by only a single sound PHONES PHONEMES AND ALLOPHONES 0 All sounds used in a language regardless of whether they are contrastive or not are called phones We indicate a phone with square brackets Q If a sounds is contrastive in a language it is a phenome of that language Phenomes are an abstract concept and are part of a speaker s mental grammar We indicate phonemes with slash brackets Q The set of predictable realizations of a phenome are called allophones Allophones are overtly realized variants of a single abstract phenome O The allophones of t in English include tquoth and t O Allophones are said to be in complementary distribution Never get one in the context where the other occurs 0 Different languages have different phonemic inventories 0 While pAh and p are allophones of a single phoneme p in English in Thai the sounds are contrastive I pquoth and p are phonemes in Thai and other languages PHONETIC VS PHONEMIC TRANSCRIPTION Some linguists are interested in the fine details of how a word is articulated Q When transcribing we often use phonetic or narrow transcription to include all of the allophonic details of a language as well as stress and other details Other times we are just interested in representing the phonemes in transcription 0 This is phonemic or broad transcription and we omit details that are predictable From now on when we do phonetic transcription we will include the following information Q Aspiration Q Nasalization of vowels Q Flapping ASPIRATION As we ve already seen voiceless stops in English have aspirated allophones when they are the only segment in the onset of a stressed syllable NASALIZATION Vowels that are the nucleus of syllables with a nasal consonant in the coda are nasalized Why does this happen The velum lowers a bit early in anticipation of the following nasal consonant allowing air to pass through the nasal cavity for part of the vowel FLAPPING In many North American English dialects when the phonemes t and d are preceded by a stress syllable and followed by an unstressed vowel they are realized as r or what we call a flap 0 The tongue has a more ballistic trajectory toward the alveolar ridge 0 Think Latter Ladder Betting Bedding Because this process changes two phonemes into phonetically identical allophones we get pairs of words that are pronounced the same on the surface but underlyineg they are composed of different phonemes CANADIAN RAISING Most speakers of Canadian English have two separate allophones each for the phonemes aw and aj THE NUTS AND BOLTS OF PHONOLOGY These phonological processesalterations are organized in speakers mental grammars by means of distinctive features 0 These features are what contrast different sounds in speakers grammars 0 These features make reference to natural classes of sounds eg all the voiced sounds all the labial consonants all the high vowels 0 All the phones of language can be described in terms of distinctive features DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF P B AND M These four distinctive features distinguish p b and m from each other and from all other sounds Q Phonological processes operate over these kinds of features changing their value from to or from to FEATURES AND RULES TYPES OF RULESPROCESSES One common type of phonological process in languages is assimilation Q Adjacent sounds can become more a line Voicing Place of Articulation Manner of Articulation Nasalization Vowel heightbacknessrounding etc OOOOO Eg the English prefix in m FEATURES AND RULES AN EXAMPLE The in prefix assimilates to the place of articulation of the following consonant 0 Next to a p n becomes m 0 Next to a k n becomes ij 0 Next to a f n becomes m 0 Next to a t or a vowel n remains an n FEATURES AND RULES TYPES OF RULESPROCESSES In addition to assimilation rules languages also make use of other kinds of rules 0 Dissimilation two adjacent sounds become less similar to each other 0 Feature change neither assimilation or dissimilation just a change eg aspirating p t and k 0 Insertion or epenthesis insertion of a sound in a specific context 0 Spanish disallows clusters like sk st and sp in onsets so an e is inserted before the cluster to break it up I Eg escuela estado especial Q Deletion eg schwa is often deleted in certain environments in English 0 Memory ImameJl gt Imamul Q Metathesis when two sounds switch positions eg ask WRITING RULES The basics of any phonological rule 1 State the phonemetype of sound that s affected 2 State what it changes to 3 State the environment 1 gt 23 Another example t and d become r when between a stressed vowel and unstressed vowel t gt r 39VV d gt r 39VV Another example Nasaization Vowels become nasalized when followed by a nasal consonant in the coda V gt nasal NG DISCOVERING PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES HOW TO SOLVE A PHONOLOGY PROBLEM DISCOVERING PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES First ask Are there any minimal pairs Q If m separate phonemes Q If m then ask Are they phonetically similar Q If m separate phonemes Q If y then ask Are they in complementary distribution I If m separate phonemes I If y allophones of the same phoneme MONDEGREENS Speakers of a language are generally good at segmenting the speech signal but sometimes we get it wrong and perceive something that wasn t said When this happens in music we call it a mondegreen There are a lot of examples of mondegreens out there but here are three 0 Jimi Hendrix Purple Haze O Lyric Scuse me while I kiss the sky 0 Heard Scuse me while I kiss this guy 0 Shocking Blue Venus O Lyric I m your Venus I m your fire 0 Heard I m your penis I m your fire 0 The theme song to The Fresh Prince of BelAir O Lyric Shooting some bball outside of the school 0 Heard Shooting some people outside of the school Why do Mondegreens happen We often confuse naturally similar sounds Sometimes musicians take advantage of this phenomenon such as the 803 British punk band Blitz with their song 40 remember most British dialects drop their rs in coda position
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