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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Nsci3300 at Tulane University taught by Paul Colombo in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Brian and behavior in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/07/15
Brain and behavior 10062015 Chapter 5 0 Contrast x ray 0 Inject a substance into a compartment of the body that absorbs x rays less or more than surrounding tissue The injected substance heightens the contrast between compartments and surround tissue during zray photography 0 Cerebral angiography uses infusion of radioopaque dye into a cerebral artery to visualize the cerebral circulatory system 0 Xray Computed Tomography CT Scan 0 Revolutionized study of brain 0 X ray tube and detector rotate around the head of patient at one level of brain taking many individual x rays 0 Computer combines each individual x ray to create CT 0 Repeat process at each level of brain horizontal sections create 3D representation 0 Magnetic Resonance imaging MRI 0 Stimulated by success of CT 0 Highresolution images are constructed from measurement of waves emitted by hydrogen atoms which are activated by radio frequency waves in a magnetic eld 0 Clearer image than CT HIGH spatial resolution 0 Produces image in 3D 0 Positron Emission Tomography PET Scan 0 1st to provide image of rain ACTIVITY functional brain imaging rather than brain structure structure brain imaging 0 A colored map of the amount of radioactivity in each of the volume pixels that compose the scan 0 How each voxel maps onto ta particular brain structure can be estimated only by superimposing the can on a brain image 0 Documents radio activity in the brain 0 Functional MRI fMRI 0 Most in uential tool of cognitive neuroscience used for medical diagnosis 0 Produce images representing increased oxygen ow in blood to actives areas of brain Possible due to the fact that n Active areas of brain take up more oxygenated blood than needed a Oxygenated blood has magnetic properties that in uence radiofrequency vaves emitted by hydrogen atoms Signal recorded BOLD signal Four advantages over PET n Nothing needs to be injected a Provide structural AND functional imaging a Better spatial resolution a Produces 3D activity over entire brain NOT a picture of neural activity Poor temporal resolution poor at specifying timing of events 0 Diffusion Tensor Imaging 0 New MRI technique 0 Identi es pathways along which water molecules rapidly diffuse 0 Provide image of major tracts 0 Trans cranial magnetic solution 0 Turns off area of the cortex and affects are assessed 0 Helps determine CAUSATION Recording human psychological Activity Scalp Electroencephalography EEG 0 Measures gross electrical activity in the brain 0 Recorded through large electrodes by a device called electroencephalogh o Re ects sum of electrical events throughout the head Action potential post synaptic potentials and electrical signals from skin muscles blood and eyes 0 Some EEG wave forms are associated with particular states of consciousness or cerebral pathology Alpha waves regular 812 per second high amplitude wave Associated with related wakefulness 0 Event related potential ERPs are the focus of psychophysiologist Sensory evoked potentials change in EEG signa elicited by sensory stimulus Average the signals to decrease noise Magneto encephalography 0 Measures change in magnetic elds on surface of scalp that are produced by changes in underlying patterns of neural activity 0 Muscle Tension 0 Measured by electromyography results in EMG 0 Raw signal fed into a computer that integrates signal ad plots results as smooth curve 0 Eye movement 0 Eectroocuography results in E06 0 Steady potential differences exist between front and back H of eyeball 0 When eye moves change in electrical potential is recorded 0 Skin Conductance 0 Measurement of Skin conductance eve SCL and skin conductive response SCR o SCL background conductance SCR transient change associated with discrete experience 0 Believed to be attributed to sweat glands Cardio vascular activity 0 Heart rate EKG Average resting 70 beats min 0 Blood pressure Systoles heart contraction diastoles relaxation a Average resting 13070 n Hypertension 14090 0 Blood volume Phethysmography measures changes lnvasion Physiological Research Methods Lesions not used any more 0 ElectricalStimulation 0 Provides clues about function of neural structure 0 Has behavioral effect opposite of those produced by legion stimulates rather than suppresses lnvasive Electrophysiological recording methods 0 Intracellular unit recording 0 Moment by moment record of graded uctuations in a neurons membrane potential Extracellular 0 Provides record of ring of a neuron but no info about membrane potential o Multiunit recording 0 Picks up signals from many neurons 0 Invasive EEG recording 0 In lab animal large implanted electrodes Pharmacological research Methods Administering drug through cannula that has been stereotaxically implanted in brain allows drug to pass bloodbrain barrier o lmmunocytochemistry 0 Locate particular proteins in brain by labeling their antibodies and the exposing slices of brain to the antibodies 0 lnsitu hybridization o obtain hybrid RNA label them and expose brain slices to RNA 0 Gene Replacement techniques 0 places one gene with another transgenic mice Behavioral Research Methods Behavioral Paradigm o A single set of procedures developed for the investigation of a particular behavioral phenomena Neuropsychologicaltesting 0 Can help brain damage patients by Assisting in diagnosis of neural disorders Serving as a basis for counseling and caring for patients Providing a basis for objectively evaluating the effectiveness side effects of treatment 0 Single test approach 0 Discriminate between patients with psychological problems resulting from STRUCTURAL brain damage and those resulting form FUNCTIONAL changes 0 Proved UNSUCCESSFUL not sensitive to all varied and complex psychological symptoms that could occur in brain damaged patients Standardized test battery approach 0 Sets of test rather than one single test 0 Only marginally successful not good and discriminating between neurological patients and psychiatric patients 0 Customized test battery approach 0 Predominates now 0 Identi es patients with brain damage AND characterized the nature of the de cit in each patient 0 Battery of general tests followed by a series of speci c customized tests 0 Test battery includes IQ WAlS Memory digit span short term memory often reported by family member Language ability token test Language lateralization sodium amytal test dichotic listening test 0 Speci c test include Memory repetition priming test Language phonology syntax and semantics Frontal lobe function Wisconsin card sorting test Behavioral Methods of Cognitive Neuroscience 0 Complex cognitive processes result from combined activity of simple processes constituent cognitive processes which are mediated by neural activity in speci c areas Paved image subtraction technique Biopsychological paradigms of animal behavior 0 Species common behaviors displayed by all members of a speci es 0 Grooming eating copulating ghting Open eld test subject placed in a barren chamber and observed fear 0 Measure activity and number of boluses Test of aggression defensive behavior 0 Colony intruder paradigm aggression 0 Elevated plus maze fearfulness Test of sexual behavior 0 Count number of mounts within a timed interaction There is NO method of manipulating brain that changes only ONE single aspect of brain function and NO measure of behavior that re ects a singular psychological process
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