PSYCH1010: Operant Conditioning, Schedules of Reinforcement, and Cognitive Psychology
PSYCH1010: Operant Conditioning, Schedules of Reinforcement, and Cognitive Psychology PSY 1010
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Parsley on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1010 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Paul J Watson (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 10/07/15
PSYCH 1 010 Introduction to Psychology Dr Watson Monday 92815 OPERANT CONDITIONING 1 How does radical behaviorism understand the person Develops a stimulusresponse SR psychology to explain the cause of a person 2 How specifically is a person to be described in terms of SR relationships 0 R a person is just a collection of behaviors response can be stronger or weaker 39 S behaviors are just a product of the environment stimuli can be presented or removed 39 UCS gt UCR is an SR relationship 39 CS gt CR is also an SR relationship 3 What does the radical behaviorist assume about your socalled voluntary behaviors Does the radical behaviorist believe in free Will Voluntary behaviors you are just a collection of behaviors so you are thought of as a pawn on the chess board of life life picks you up and HIOVEDS you across the board I10 actions am voluntary 39 Free Will there is none 4 What three terms refer to the conditioning of your socalled voluntary behavior Conditioned quotvoluntaryquot responses Operant conditioning one learns to operate based on the enVironm nt Instrumental conditioning one must learn to use behavior as an instrument or tool on the environment 39 Skinnerian Conditioning What is the Law of Effect and who first stated it in formal terms 39 Behavior is controlled by its consequences or CffGCtS E L Thorndik What is reinforcement 39 Informal definition it is a responsestrengthening process 39 Formal definition a process that occurs when a behavior is strengthened by a stimulus that follows it 39 Example you work hard at your job so your boss gives you a raise you work just as hard or even harder next time 39 Stimulus hard work gt response boss gives you a raise gt stimulus more hard work What American psychologist was probably most famous for systematically studying the reinforcement process 39 B F Skinner Describe the apparatus used by this psychologist to study reinforcement in studies using for example rats He called his apparatus an operant chamber aka Skinner box He put a rat into the box and deprived it of food for 235 hours A lever is on the wall with a hole underneath it if the rat presses the lever it releases food pellets into the cup by the hole He then observed how long it took the rat to learn about the lever 10 11 Shaping occurs through the gradual reinforcement Of behavior toward a target I CSpOIlSC do this by applying successive approximations How was conditioned behavior established in this apparatus In this process what do the terms shaping and successive approximations refer to Shaping gradual reinforcement of behavior toward a target response 39 Successive Approximations gradual movement towards target area to learn a conditioned response In the conditioning of your socalled voluntary behaviors what four basic relationships can occur between stimuli and responses positive reinforcement positive punishment negative reinforcement and negative punishment In other words what are positive reinforcement positive punishment negative reinforcement and negative 0 Mu 5 vaq C l WCMICoC Vmaf punishment Give an example of each by trying to think up Ei j A 80K gm 57 75 f NSWMGIJF examples from your own life 39 Positive reinforcement stimulus is presented and response is strengthened 39 Positive punishment stimulus is presented and response is weakened 39 Negative reinforcement stimulus is removed and response iS strength n d Negative punishment stimulus is removed and response is weakened 12 Do extinction generalization and discrimination apply to this type of conditioning Yes All of the above still apply 39 Extinction if reinforcement is removed for an extendCd p riod of rm the rCSponSC Will disappear 39 Generalization if behavior has been established in one area it could transfer to another similar situation 39 Discrimination behavior varies due to observed differences in situations Example Bob cans Debbie to invite her to parties that she in turn attends to make James jealous eventually Debbie gets James and begins rejecting Bob Bob is continuously rejected so he stops calling extinction 39 Bob now meets and likes Sheila so he calls often to invite her to partiCSI g n ralization 39 Sheila doesn39t like parties but she enjoys nature Bob stops inviting her to parties and invites her on hikes discrimination Wednesday 93015 SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT 1 What is a schedule of reinforcement 0 Rules that specify the relationship between responding and reinforcement 2 What are the two basic types of reinforcement schedules Which type is probably more common in the social life of persons Continuous reinforcement schedule every response behavior is reinforCCd exampl i machines such as the brakes in a car or the buttons on a remote Partial reinforcement schedule only some responses are reinforced 3 What are probably the four most common partial reinforcement schedules Fixed ratio schedule reinforcement occurs after a fixed or set number of responses FR10 Operant Example if the rat presses the lever 10 times he gets a pellet of food Rapid responding getting through the set number quickly Postreinforcement pause pausing after reward before beginning prOCCSS again Example you sew 5 shirts and then get paid 39 Variable ratio schedule reinforcement follows an average varying number of responses VRlO Operant Example the rat presses the lever 10 times and gets food rat presses the lever 25 times and gets food rat presses the lever 4 times and gets food Produces steady responding and is difficult to extinguish Example gambling behavior A casino is like a large Skinner box Fixed interval reinforcement schedule reinforcement is made available after a SCt fixed period of time Fl10 sec 39 Operant Example rat presses the lever and must wait 10 seconds before reward arrives so the rat waits about 8 seconds to press the lever Scalloping pattern graph looks like the edge of a seashell 0 Example reading is assigned at the beginning of the semester but student doesn39t begin reading until near the exam and is reinforced by good grades this strategy of cramming does not work because it is simply generalized from high school 0 Variable Interval reinforcement schedule reinforcement is made available after an average varying period of time Operant Example rat presses lever and the reward time varies 39 Produces steady responding 39 Example pop quizzes 4 How would each of these four partial reinforcement schedules operate in an operant chamber See above response listed under quotoperant examplequot 5 What would be the characteristics of behavior associated with each of these four partial reinforcement schedules 6 Indicate how each of these partial reinforcement schedules might operate in the life of persons by trying to think of examples from your own personal experience Friday 10215 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY 1 How would Skinner react to any attempt to define learning in terms of processes that occur within the mind 0 He would be opposed to the general definition of learning gaining information 2 What two main arguments might he present in order to defend his reaction He sees it as a relationship following the pattern SgtmindgtR 0 This approach is too subjective all science should be objective and one cannot see what39s going on in someone else39s mind 0 This approach is unnecessary how do we know anyone has ever learned anything The only way we know someone has learned something is by watching its obvious evidence in their behavior 3 What would Skinner mean if he were to suggest that the mind should be hidden inside a black box 39 It should not be thought about or included forget about the mind39s presence 4 Where does the analogy of a black box come from 0 Architecture one draws a big black box on a blueprint to say quotgenerator goes herequot There is no detail or understanding of the black box but it39s known that it is still there 5 How might Skinner choose to define learning 39 Learning a more or less permanent change in behavior as a result of stimulus experience 6 How would this definition be compatible with his SR psychology Stimulus experience creates a response change of behavior 7 How did a British philosopher describe the early 20th Century emphasis of American psychology on an SR approach to learning What did he mean by this 39 American psychology has lost its mind It is literally true because Americans believed that the mind should be ignored 39 Believed that American psychology was crazy because the definition of psychology iS quotthe study of the mindquot psyche logos 8 Explain how the research of E C Tolman suggests that explanations of learning in terms of mental processes make sense Complex Maze a huge puzzle given to rats 0 One 1ocation is the start box and the other end is the goal box with pathways and dead ends between both boxes One pathway is the most efficient from start to goal 39 The rats are food deprived and set into the start box and a food pellet is placed in the goal box This process is continued until the rat learnS the mOSt Cffici nt pathway 39 The reward group learned the most efficient pathway after about 11 times phase 1 The no reward group they never learn the maze efficiently if there is no reward food pellet in the goal box phase 1 if there is suddenly food in the goal bOX after 11 trials of no food they will suddenly learn the efficient route within 2 times phase 2 9 What is latent learning According to Tolman how are cognitive maps relevant to an understanding of latent learning 0 Latent learning sudden change of not learning to rapid learning 39 Cognitive map imagined map of a maze If the rats have a cognitive map they can participate in latent learning 10 Explain how the research of Wolfgang Kohler suggests that explanations of learning in terms of mental processes make sense 39 He worked with chimpanzees and analyzed problemsolving behavior 39 Sultan chimp was placed in a cage with a banana above it attached by a string when jumping for the banana does not work the behavior extinguishes Sl tan notiCGS a lot 0f random objects in the oor of the cage and then stacks the objects to reach the banana 11 What is insight learning and how is it related to the possible role of mental processes in learning How might an informal definition of the concept insight suggest the importance of mental events in psychological functioning 39 Insight learning sudden understanding of how to solve a problem Insight inside one39s mind this shows that chimps and rats have minds so it can be assumed that people haVe minds as well 12 What approach to psychology emerged in response to the work of people like Tolman and Kohler Cognitivism rebellion against Skinner focus on the mind open the black box