HIST1020: Ming Dynasty continued, Portuguese Exploration of Atlantic and West Africa, Spanish-Atlantic, Spain in the Caribbean, and the Aztec Empire
HIST1020: Ming Dynasty continued, Portuguese Exploration of Atlantic and West Africa, Spanish-Atlantic, Spain in the Caribbean, and the Aztec Empire HIST 1020
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Parsley on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Aaron P Althouse (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations II: World History from c. 1000 to 1800 in History at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 10/07/15
HIST1020 World Civilizations c 1000 1800 Althouse Monday 92815 MING DYNASTY CHINA continued from Friday Jesuit Order most wellknown leader of Jesuits in China was Matteo Ricci 39 There are about 900 Jesuits in total China39s population in 1360s is 60 million and rises to about 150 million by the 1500s 39 By 15001600 China is looking good 39 The population more than doubled during the Ming Dynasty Education and 0111mm Confucian system 13681644 39 Civil service exams are administered annually to all young men 39 Literacy greatly rose so that men could read and memorize Confucius 39 Novels for fun reading also came about this was a great cultural achievement 39 One single printer printed around 600 books during this time 39 Religious books had ledgers that one could use to calculate his own moral worth Urban recover consumer culture is improved as richer people bought useless luxury goods 1644 Causes of the Ming ending 39 Natural disasters difficult weather affects harvests and the food supply 39 Bad administration rulers are enjoying books and palace life so much that they neglect their duties and revolts begin PORTUGUESE EXPLORATION OF ATLANTIC WEST AFRICA 14181498 Iberian Peninsula Spain and Portugal 39 The Portuguese are the first to explore the western coast of Africa by sea Portugal is very poor at this time 39 They were trying to get around Africa to tap into the Indian spice trade later they would expand to slave trade as they passed Africa 39 The Portuguese explored Africa while Spain explored the Americas Context for exploration 39 1095 Crusades begin 39 Marco Polo and his book about China about 1300 People wanted a sea route to Asia 39 Rise of the Ottoman Empire Sea exploration 39 1200s1300s Straits of Gibraltar leads from the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean between Spain and Africa 39 1300s Sailors were concentrated in Spain and Portugal 39 1200s1400s technological innovation made sea exploration better Magnetic comPaSS invented in China and spread to Europe helped show direction on the open seas and helped to make Portolan Charts maps through compass points Rudders were added to ships to control direction sails were changed from squares to triangles 39 Reasons for exploring the Atlantic Ocean Spain and Portugal stick out into the Atlantic Ocean by about 600 miles Getting to the Indian Ocean and Asia by sea To directly tap into gold trade get rich quickly Portuguese were very poor yet motivated 700s Arab and Berbers were invaded by Spain and Portugal Plague 1300s 1400s 39 Portugal doesn39t deal with the plague39s impact as harshly as Spain 39 Spain got desperate to send Columbus to catch up with Portugal Genoa Italian cityState 39 Vivaldi brothers got lost at sea and never returned 14401470 Portuguese explore the northwestern coast of Africa 39 Triangular Trade travel down the northwest coast of Africa then traveling northwest to another trade post in South America and letting the winds take them back to Europe 39 1470s1480s gold in Africa 39 1490s establishing colonies in Africa and trading posts along the coast Elmina trading post on the western coast of Africa translates to quotminequot Had to get permission to set up these posts Madeira ISlandS Cape Verde Islands and Canary Islands mid 1400s sugar is grown on plantations among these island groups off the northwestern coast of Africa Europe claimed these islands and forced African slaves to do this manual labor Wednesday 930 15 SPANISHATLANTIC ChlfiStoph r C01umbus C016n Ferdinand and Isabella sent him to the Americas across the Atlantic 39 Contract gave him a percentage of what he found and put him in charge of any new colonies established 39 Overexaggerated his findings to gain continued support and funding 39 Returned to Spain in 1493 with people from the Caribbean and some gold objects Ferdinand and Isabella began unification of Spain during the late 14003 39 1492 explorers arrived in the Caribbean 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas 39 Representatives of the Pope Spain and Portugal made a compromise to divide the globe into an eastern and western side West parts unknown Americas this become Spain39s territory to conquer East Asia Europe and Africa this was given to Portugal to conquer Brazil stuck out over the line of division so the Portuguese claimed it 39 Any land in one39s section was allowed to be conquered but it had to be done in the name of Christianity to convert new people and no Christians could be conquered 1500 Columbus is brought back to Spain and called a tyrant The otherquot idea of other people is important in the period when Europeans began to encounter societies unknown to them such as the Americas and islands in the Caribbean the quotothersquot are European ideas about native people Patterns in 1500s 39 1502 2500 Spaniards established a new colony on Hispaniola and it grows to roughly 10000 people by 1508 as the natives dwindle from between 20000012million to 62000 by 1509 39 High expectations poor illiterate men expect to find riches which makes them very cruel 1512 gold is found in Cuba which sparks a mini gold rush gold frenzy This gold frenzy does not produce enough gold for everyone so people become violent and many die 39 Spain is given control over church activity in America 1504 Pope39s debate over how to treat the natives in America that are being converted to Christianity when Spaniards were brutalizing and enslaving them Encomienda system to quotavoidquot slavery giving rewards to those who conquer territories this reward is giving someone a number of natives to care for and Christianize them as the natiVeS Provided labor and goods protection in return for labor Friday 10215 SPAIN IN THE CARIBBEAN 1492 First stage of contact Spaniards looked at quotnew thingsquot which were actually quotoldquot 39 Jaguars were just called tigers because they couldn39t describe something old as it was new to their understanding Moving in recreate Christian Europe in new colonies 39 New words came about to describe animals plants and even people samples were categorized and brought back to Europe 39 Looked for rules and patterns of societies in the Americas that they can understand but they didn39t understand looked at government marriage rituals religion food preparations clothing these categories were unrecognizable to the Spaniards Aristotle looked to him to define civilization 39 What is required of civilized people they live in cities have laws and speak the same language they need to live in harmony under Christianity AZTEC EMPIRE Mexico 1420s1520s 25 million people Aztec empire collection of citystates in Mexico Aztecs trans1ates to quotEmpirequot 1200 Central Mexico 39 Migrants are moving south to more fertile land 39 Mexica group was one of these groups of migrants 39 Migrants arrive in an area of Central Mexico that is a collection of citystates that were in constant competition ChinamP S agriculture leads to urban growth TenOChtitl n arises as the capital city with an empirical design oating agriculture city Toltecs 1179 the Mexica were looked down upon for lacking Toltec heritage so they intermarry with people from the region who do have this heritage Triple Alliance three citystates who joined together defeated larger citystates and dominated the region Our idea of time a linear line of events Aztec idea of time a circular cycle of cataclysmic events 39 Preoccupied with continuing the cycle of dominance by pleasing their many gods 39 Due to the pressure of this emphasis human sacrifice became popular even priests would mutilate their own bodies as a blood sacrifice 39 Tenochtitl n was obsessed with constant rituals a warrior will go through ritual battles feast everyday be given beautiful women and lavished with expensive gifts for a year and then is sacrificed to the gods it was common for the human heart to be placed on a platter while it is still beating 39 It is believed that they had around 20000 gods Tenochtitlan was obsessed with constant rituals a warrior would go through ritual battles feast everyday be given beautiful women and lavished with expensive gifts for a year and then was sacrificed to the gods it was common for the human heart to be put on a platter while still beating It is believed that they had around 20000 gods TenOChtitl n was a network of dominated surrounding citystates 39 They were very economical about this but the trade was very unequal 39 Military was used to intimidate others into giving up their goods 39 This empire was fragile because it was based on controlling economic activity and conquest Conquest means 39 Unequal tradetribute 39 Little religious change 39 Local leaders replaced