Chapter 7 textbook notes
Chapter 7 textbook notes Psychology 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Noelle Holden on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 101 at Towson University taught by Dr. Girio-Herrera in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 10/07/15
Chapter 7 Memory 71 The Functions of Memory Encoding Storing and Retrieving Encoding inputting information Memory Traces stored bits of information in memory Information will be processed and put into storage Retrieval process to recall and output the information from memory Consciousness awareness of our own thoughts and the external world Attention bring the stimulus into our consciousness become consciously aware of it 711 Explicit and lmplicit Memory Explicit memory conscious use of memory use this type of memory when we consciously search our memory for a previously stored bit of information lmplicit memory unconscious use of memory using stored knowledge to do things 72 The Development of New Memories 721 The Traditional ThreeStages Model of Memory first stage Sensory memory information that comes in from our eyes ears and other senses is briefly stored in a sensory form such as a sound or a visual image sight iconic memory information stays in sensory memory for merely a fraction of a second hearing echoic memory duration varies across situations taste smell and touch haptic memory if we pay attention to the information in our sensory memory the information is sent on to the second stage second stage Shortterm memory STM functions as a temporary holding tank for a limited amount of information can hold information in short term memory for only a few seconds before we must act either to send it further on in the memory system or to keep it in shortterm memory by refreshing it third stage Longterm memory LTM permanent storage system ShortTerm Memory Where Memories are Made And Lost uses a dual coding system in which memories can be stored either visually or acoustically 722 The Capacity of ShortTerm Memory Seven PLus or minus Two George Miller research study showed that the average person could hold about seven plus ro minus two items in shortterm memory limited capacity of may be due to the way that neurons in the hippocampus code and store information Chunking a technique for extending the amount of information we can hold in shortterm memory involves grouping information into meaningful units or chunks 723 The Duration of ShortTerm Memory lt s Yours for 30 Seconds Maintenance rehearsal repetition of the material in shortterm memory useful for extending the duration of shortterm memory Forgetting curve amount of information forgotten as time passes 724 Elaborative Rehearsal Making Memories Stick Elaborative Rehearsal involves forming associations or mental connections between the information you already have stored in your permanent longterm memory 725 Levels of Processing Levelsof Processing model the more strongly you transfer information in to longterm memory previously assumed that the only way to get information into longterm memory was to use elaborative rehearsal 726 The SerialPosition Curve and Agerelated Changes in Memory Serialposition curve the tendency for participants to recall each word correctly plotted as a function of the position of the word in the original list Primacy effect the tendency for words at the beginning of the list to be better recalled diminished primacy effects for adults have been shown to be related to having Alzheimer s disease and mild cognitive impairments that are likely to progress and become Alzheimer s disease people with this disease and progressive cognitive impairments have difficulty transferring information from shortterm memory to longterm memory Recency effect the words at the end of the list are also well remembered thought to occur because participants still have these words in shortterm memory at the time they are asked to recall the list one of the aspects of memory that is most affected by normal aging aging negatively affects recency memory for verbal information much more than for visual information 727 The Working Memory Model Parallel Memory Working memory views the memory stages in more of a parallel fashion as opposed to a serial fashion assumes that we process different aspects of memory at the same time rather than in a series of stages as predicted by the threestages model moves information into and out of longterm memory whereas shortterm memory operates as the part of working memory that briefly stores the information we are using at any particular time info does not flow sequentially from sensory to shortterm to longterm memory can explain why we sometimes seem to access longterm memory before we process information in shortterm memory Central Executive component in part of the working memory functions as an attentioncontrolling mechanism within working memory must coordinate actions of the subordinate systems and integrate information that comes in form these systems Phonological Loop processes auditory information Visuospatial sketchpad processes visual and spatial information phonological and visuospatial sketchpad are called subordinate systems because they fall under the control of the central executive 73 LongTerm Memory Permanent Storage 731 The Capacity of LongTerm Memory psychologists have not found any reason to believe that longterm memory has a limited capacity as shortterm memory and working memory do 732 Encoding in LongTerm Memory longterm memory can be stored in both acoustic and visual forms Semantic Encoding stores the gist or general meaning of the stimulus rather than storing all of the sensory details 733 Organization in LongTerm Memory Schema generalized knowledge structure we have these for people places concepts events groups of people and just about everything else we know they contain general general information on the characteristics of the concepts category its function and so on 734 Declarative and Procedural LongTerm Memories Declarative memory type of explicit memory memory for knowledge that can be verbalized names dates events etc can be divided into two subtypes Semantic memory for concepts Episodic memory for the recent events in one s life integrated autobiographical memory Autobiographical Memory our more general memory of our unique personal history Personal Semantics memory system thought to exist somewhere between semantic and episodic memory thought to encompass knowledge about oneself hypothesized along with episodic memory to be part of autobiographical memory Procedural Memory our memory for skills often implicit memory tend to last for a long time in longterm memory 735 Amnesia What Forgetting Can Teach Us about Memory Retrograde amnesia inability to recall previously stored declarative memories basically amnesia for one s past Anterograde amnesia inability to encode new declarative memories in longterm memory basically amnesia for one s present and future 74 Retrieval and Forgetting in LongTerm Memory retrieval occurs when we send a probe or cue into longterm memory in search of memory traces or encoded memories that we have stored there probe or cue could be anything such as a test question sound of a rollercoaster etc 741 Recognition and Recall Recall task Essay question is an example probe is relatively weak and does not contain a great deal of information to go on as you search your memory for the answer Recognition task multiple choice question on a test is an example probe is stronger and contains much more information that does a recall cue 742 Forgetting Why Can t I Remember That Decay Theory maintains that once a memory trace is stored in longterm memory it must be routinely activated to keep it there if the decay is not stopped by recalling the memory the memory trace will be lost forever Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon knowing information but not being able to recall it at the moment due to an interference a condition in which the memory trace is still available but has become temporarily inaccessible Proactive Interference occurs when older info inhibits our ability to retrieve other newer info from memory Retroactive Interference newer info inhibits the retrieval of older information in memory CueDependent Forgetting the amount of information we can retrieve from longterm memory is a function of the type of cue or probe we use Repression repressing memories into an inaccessible part of our mind called the unconscious results in amnesia 75 The Accuracy of Memory Flashbulb memory unusually detailed memory for emotionally charged events 751 Memory Is Not Like a Video Camera Reconstructive based on actual events Constructive we use knowledge and expectations that we have stored in our schemas to help us fill in the missing details in our stored memories 752 Eyewitness Memory Misinformation effect distortion of memory that occurs when people are exposed to misinformation 76 The Biology of Memory Memory consolidation the stabilization and longterm storage of memory traces in the brain
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