BIOL-Chapter Ten notes
BIOL-Chapter Ten notes BIOl 1020-003
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crystal Boutwell on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOl 1020-003 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Zhong in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/07/15
Chapter Ten Photosynthesis Compiled by Crystal Boutwell o Photosynthesis the conversion process of light energy to chemical energy 0 Autotrophs quotselffeeders they sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other living beings 0 Produce their organic molecules from carbon dioxide and other inorganic raw materials from the environment 0 Also known as Producers o Heterotrophs unable to make their own food and live on compounds produced by other organisms 0 Also known as consumers Photosynthesis the conversion of light energy to chemical energy food A Origins a group of bacteria that had enfolded regions of plasms membranes containing clusters of photosynthetic molecules B Parts of a plantchloroplast i 1 All green parts of a plant have chloroplasts 2 Where photosynthesis takes place 3 Mainly found in the cells ofthe the tissue in the interior ofthe leaf Inner membrane 4 A double membrane surrounds a loose liquid called a In the stroma are green pancakes which contain a 3rd membrane bound Iniermembrane space Outer membrane sac Inside of the thylakoid is the thylakoid space b Thylakoids are stacked in columns called 5 resides in the membranes of chloroplasts a Absorbs the GTOHUT IhYlOkC39l d light energy which drives SlOCk Oil hYleOidS b the synthesis of organic inside of thylakoid mOlECUlGS Siroma aqueous uid 1 The mouth by which a plant absorbs C02 and releases 02 C Equation for photosynthesis i 6C02 12H20 9 C6H1206 602 6H20 ii C02 H20 9 CH20 02 D Redox Reactions i Water is split ii Electrons are transferred from water to C02 reducing it to sugar E Stages of Photosynthesis i Light Reactions 1 Convert solar energy to chemical energy Water is split 02 is released on acceptor NADP Generates ATP using chemiosmosis photophosphorylation Reactants Water and Light energy Products 02 NADH ATP 2 3 4 5 6 7 E mhrume compile thdusvstem Fh l 39 l l I Emma quot Light Hasn t Light 7 rsdu cutass a x 2 if a A NADP EH 5 39 39iu u 391 39 i quota 39 3 r x I r r g v 715159 5 ifK 7 H V I 39 39IliC tannin flquot quot II I V r MEMH39AHE H y 39 2 039 1amp2 1 3 Ealvin TH IFLAK llD39 SPACE 2 T I 4 cycle i IIIIIIIIIfl39IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIW 39 iiimil quotrnu39 39iquot thins h 39 l r quot I39139iiiiigtl iji in 7 1 2 l I iiii 39I ll lt ll ETHDME EH H Gupylimi IE PEETEEII39I Education ll39riI publishing as BEI39Iiamin Gummings So what actually is happening in this picture Photosystem ll Light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll little green dots and water is split 02 is released but those H from water go on to produce ATP later down the road Electrons flow through the ETC to Photosystem I and into NADP reductase a protein that catalyzes the reduction of NADP to NADPH by adding those electrons Then the NADPH and ATP go to the Calvin Cycle 2 The Calvin cycle i Named after Melvin Calvin ii Incorporates C02 from air into organic molecules already present carbon fixation iii Reduces the fixed carbon by the addition of electrons iv Makes sugar v Uses 9 ATPs and 6 NADPHs along with C02 vi Produces 1 G3P a carbohydrate NADP ADP vii 3 steps 1 Carbon fixation attaches each C02 molecule to a 5C sugar i Rubisco the enzyme that catalyzes this step ii Produces 6C intermediate which immediately splits in half iii Forms 2 3Phosphoglycerates 2 Reduction i Each 3Phosphoglycerate receives a Phosphate group from ATP ii 2 electrons from NADPH reduces it forming G3P sugar iii For every 3 C02 6 G2Ps are produced Only one is used as a net 3 Regeneration of C02 acceptor RuBP i 5 G3P are rearranged to form 3 RuBP ii This spends 3 ATP 6 CO 8 I h carbin xation 12 3PGA 6 ribulose 15bisphosphate 000 DGFGHBKD 6 ADP RuBP T1ZADP 6ribulose5phosphate M 12 NADP 12 G3P Transporth from chloroplast to make glucose carlan dipli de HSuanht A Light electromagnetic energy radiation BTravels in rhythmic waves CWavelength distance between crests of waves DElectromagnetic spectrum entire range of radiation E Visible light 380 nm750 nm F Photons act like objects each has a fixed amount of energy GThe rainbow Color Purple Violet Blue Green Yellow Orange Red Pink Wavelength 380 40 500 550 600 650 700 750 Energy gtgtgtgtgt gtgtgtgt gtgtgt gtgt gt lt ltltlt ltltltlt H Photosynthetic pigments i Pigments substances that absorb visible light 1 Wavelength oriented 2 Wavelengths that are absorbed disappear ii Spectrophometer measures how well a pigment can absorb various wavelengths of light iii Absorbtion spectrum a graph that plots a pigment s light absorption versus it s wavelength Light Reactions Calvin Cycle Reactions Light Dependent Light Independent Carried out in the thylakoid membranes Take place in the stroma Convert light to chemical energy ATP amp NADPH Use ATP amp NADPH to convert C02 to GBP Split H20 to release 02 to atmosphere Return ADP inorganic P and NADP to the light reactions vi iv Chlorophyll a and b main pigments of photosynthesis 1 They absorb all wavelengths of light except for those of yellowgreen and green They reflect these colors which is why plants are green v Accessory pigments Carotenoids absorb yellowgreen and green but reflect orange and red this is why carrots are orange Action spectrum profiles the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of radiation in driving the process of photosynthesis Excitation i Absorbing a photon moves electrons to an elevated orbital The potential energy rises ii Ground state vs Excited state 1 The ground state is the normal state When an electron is in the place it would normally be And excited state is whenever an electron has moved up to a higher orbital iii Electrons only become excited when the energy of the photon they absorb is equal to the energy difference between the excited state and the ground state iv When the electron falls back down to ground state that energy is lost as heat and occasionally light J Photosystems i Chlorophylls and other small organic molecules and proteins ii Reactioncenter complex surrounded by light harvesting complexes iii Reactioncenter complex proteins that hold special pairs of chlorophylls iv Light harvesting complex pigments that bind to proteins K Linear Electron Flow occurs during the light reactions of photosynthesis the flow of electrons through photosystems and other molecular components built into the thylakoid membrane L Cyclic Electron Flow Uses Photosystem I but not H i No production of NADPH and no release of 02 ii Does Generate ATP Alternate paths to generate sugars than photosynthesis i Hot arid climates cause dehydration ii Most plants close their stomata to conserve water but this cause C02 to not be able to enter B Photorespiration i C3 plants initial fixation of carbon occurs vis rubisco in the Calvin cycle ii Photorespiration rubisco binds to 02 in the place of C02 and releases C02 1 Uses ATP rather than generating it 2 Plays protective role in plants C C4 plants preface the calvin cycle with an alternate mode of Carbon fixation that forms a 4Carbon compound i Sugarcane corn grass family ii 2 distinct types of photosynthetic cells 1 Bundlesheath cells tightly packed sheets around veins 2 Mosphyll cells between bundle sheaths around veins D CAM plants i Succulent plants cacti pineapples ii Open stomata during the night and close it during the day iii Mesophyll cells store organic acids
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