Week2 Lecture Notes - Psych 202
Week2 Lecture Notes - Psych 202 PSY 202
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janiel Celeena Santos on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 202 at University of Oregon taught by Measelle J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society >2 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/07/15
Psych 202 October 5 2015 Scienti c Methods in Psvchology Scienti c Inquiry st Utilizes the Scienti c Method oz Psychologists ask scienti c question about the what when and why of behaviormental processes 0 That things exist 0 When they come to existence 0 Why they exist Scienti c Method techniques for investigating events acquiring new knowledge and correctingintegrating previous knowledge Must be based on empirical and measurable evidence subject to speci c principal of reasoning st Let39s reality speak for itself Essential Elements 1 Theory 2 Hypothesis 3 Research 4 Support the Theory OR Refute or fail to support the theory Cyclical relationship among the theory and testable hypothesis 3 Main Research Models 0 Descriptive Correlational Experimental Descriptive gt Observe and desirable natural behaviors to provide systematic and objective explanation of behavior gt Naturalistic vs Participant Observation 0 NOT inserting herself into the ow of the invents vs inserting one into the situation gt Advantages o Takes place in realworld setting 0 Can establish early if a phenomena exists gt Disadvantages 0 Errors in observation observer bias Observer Bias systematic errors in observation because of one s expectations 0 Observation alters participants behavior Experimenter Expectancy Effect Changes in observed behavior due to expectation of a researcher Hawthorn Effect A special case of observer effect observed subjects change or improve their behavior because they are aware that they are being observed quotRise to the Occasionquot Correlational Studies Examine how Variable Relate to One Another Correlational Studies Examine how variables are naturally related in the real world gt Researches do not attempt to alter variables Making Predictions gt By establishing correlations between variables researchers are able to make predictions Ex Correlational research has identi ed a strong relationship between depression and suicide Limits gt Third Variable Problem Can39t be sure that another unmeasured variable doesn39t better account for cause of correlation genes for impulsivity gt suicide gt Directionality Problem Research may identify correlation between two variables but they cannot determine which variable may have caused change in another variable Media and violence gt Stupid correlations trivial irrelevant quotwho cares about the association between two variablesquot Likelihood of Drowning and IceCream sales third variable is summer gt Causality Correlation correlation does not equal causality Time frame of observational correlational studies Crosssectional gt Participants observed at one point in time gt Can compare participants who are different in age to understand possible development effectsgroup 13 studied at the same time Longitudinal gt Follow same individuals over time studied and measured repeatedly Experimental Research Researcher manipulates one variable to examine its effect on a second variable Independent Variable Variable that is manipulated Dependent Variable Variable that is measured Experimental group The groups that receives the manipulation Experiments allow for the examination of Causality gt The independent variable is assumed to be the cause of any change in the dependent variable gt Such a conclusion assumes rigorous control gt Researchers must minimize the possibility that anything other than the independent variable will affect an experiment39s outcome gt A confound is anything other than the independent variable that affects the dependent variable Random Sampling Critical for Research gt Psychologists want to generalize ndings from samples of individuals to the population beyond the study Random Sampling every person in the population has an equal chance of being selected for the experiment Random Assignment Each research participant has an equal chance once being assigned to any level of the independent variable Most Common Methods Used in Psychological Science 5 basic data collection methods gt ObservationaITechniques 0 Case Studies Asking participantsselfreport Response Performance Measuring biological activity Using Animal models VVVV Observation as an Unobtrusive Strategy Gottman quotLove Labquot Asking Takes a more Active Approach gt Compared to observation asking people about themselves is a more interactive way of collecting data gt SelfReport Method such as questionnaires or surveys are used to gather data from a large number of people in a short time gt Interviews gt Experience sampling SelfReport Bias gt Problem with asking based methods of data it s dif cult to discern an honest response gt Person Socially desirable respondingfaking good People respond in a way that is most socially acceptable gt Better than average effect People portray themselves in the best light RESDOHSE Performance gt Response Performance researchers quantify perceptual or cognitive processes in response to a speci c stimulus gt Three major types 0 Reaction time 0 Response accuracy 0 Stimulus judgments NonSemilnvasive biological sampling placentacord blood heel sticks saliva blood draws Research with Animals gt For ethical reasons some research cannot be conducted with humans 0 Transgenic mice are produced by manipulating the genes in developing mouse embryos gt Many important research ndings in psychology have been obtained by studying the behavior of animals October 7 Bionsvchologv CNS 6 Brain How Does the Nervous Svstem Work 60 The nervous system is responsible for everything that is thought felt and done oz Basic Components 0 Neurons 0 Central Nervous System oz Neurons are specialized for communication provide for instant of Method of Cellular Communication oz Nerve cells are empowered by electrical impulses communicate with other nerve cells through chemical signals Three Basic Phases 60 Reception Chemical signals are received from neighboring neurons oz Integration incoming signals are assessed oz Transmission signals are passed on to other receiving neurons TVpes of Neurons 0 Sensory afferent toward brain Neurons detect information from the physical world and pass that information along to the brain 0 Somatosensory nerves provide information from skin and muscles oz Motor Neurons efferent from the brain direct muscles to contract or relax 0 lnterneurons communicate within local or short distance circuits Neurotransmitters in uence Mental Activity and Behavior 60 Drugs and toxins can later neurotransmitter actions 0 Agonists enhance the actions of neurotransmitters o Antagonists Inhibit the actions of neurotransmitters 60 Nine that are quotWork Forcequot Transmitters 0 Ex Dopamine GABA Endorphins Substance P Glutamate Serotonin Norepinephrine Epinephrine Acetylcholine Brain StructuresFunctions wGroves between the folds eri the outward folds of the brain Brainstem houses the basic programs of survival Cerebellum is essential for movement Subcortical Structures control emotion and basic drives Cerebral cortex underlies complex mental activity Prefrontal Cortex Brain region particularly concerned with social phenomena following norms patients with injuries have dif culty communicating and getting along with others Phineas Gage his accident let to major personality changes Lobotomy deliberate damaging of prefrontal cortex used in late 405 early 505 Peripheral Nervous Systems Two primary components Somatic Nervous Svstem transmits sensory signals tofrom the central nervous system Autonomic Nervous Svstem ANS regulates the body s internal environment by stimulating glands and internal organs Sympathetic Division prepares the body for action fight ig ht Parasympathetic Division returns body to the normal resting state st Most internal organs are controlled by inputs from sympathetic and parasympathetic systems Endocrine System Communicates through Hormones st The Endocrine system is a communication network that in uences thoughts behaviors actions oz The main difference is that the endocrine system uses hormones Hormones Chemical substances released into the bloodstream by the ductless endocrine glands such as the pancreas thyroid and testesovaries39 Neuro Endocrine oz Endocrine System is under the central nervous system s control oz Neural activation causes the hypothalamus to secrete a particular relseasing factor which causes the pituitary gland to relsease a hormone Pituitarv Gland quotMaster Glandquot governs the release of hormones from the rest of the endocrine glands responsible for major bodily processes
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