Lecture Notes, week 2 - Religion in Roman Africa
Lecture Notes, week 2 - Religion in Roman Africa History 201
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Fisher-Roberts on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 201 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Dr. Kleijwegt in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Religion in Roman Africa in History at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 10/07/15
9320 l 5 Roman Religion in the Private Sphere 1 I The Roman Family a Three different types of domestic gods that are speci c to the home b Lares usually represented as a small statuette i Ancestors protectors of the family or family representatives ii Don t look very different from one place to the next c Altars usually placed in Kitchen very economical in use of religious space When referring to family a Term fam a used by a man and refers to all the people underneath his power and control b Children and slaves had same financial rights i Head of the household is in charge of everything holds all money and all power ii Children cannot act independently father must do that for them c Marriage and Women i In one particular type of marriage called cum manu the spouse falls into the same category as the children traditional type of Roman marriage ii This fashion was changed as Rome became an empire new type of marriage iii In the new type of marriage woman remains underneath the household of her father iv Women do not inherit from their husbands rather she inherits from her father v Women had a serious legal disadvantage vi For the entirety of their lives women must have a man next to them to make the most important decisions of their lives l lfshe wants to sell a land even if she owns it she must have the permission of a man vii Women have a tutor that is a relative that can give a woman permission always a man viii SERIOUS LIMITATION for women being able to make financial decisions ix DO not play a significant role in Roman religion x Apart from six Vestal Wrgins the other priests are men xi Very one sided religion xii When father passes away a woman is automatically assigned a guardian to be a male representative xiii An unmarried woman s property would likely be given as dowry to attract a wealthy husband in that case the property would be transferred to the man xiv HOWEVER despite the limitations both women and men can initiate divorce xv Age of marriage l Boys must be l4 girls must be l2 or can even be younger Married so young to ensure virginity Most boys marry much later 25 27 Age gap is sometimes extremely wide a That the woman was usually so much younger made it difficult to stand up to a much older husband d NOT an equal relationship the oldest man always holds the money and power EVEN if the children are adults i No one except head holds any property Death and Funerals a Heirs are responsible for burial b All cemeteries are outside cities c If one is too poor the body is simply collected and thrown into a large pit outside the city I2 I3 I4 Burial clubs i Pay admission and monthly fee and when one dies their funeral is taken care of Slaves and free Romans were often buried side by side Undertakers are always slaves usually convicts i Come by night to take bodies and take them out of the city The moment of death i Very public event people coming in and out of bedroom ii Societal expectation to meet death well iii Surrounded by friends and family iv One individual hears last words v That person gives final lltiss vi Eyes are closed vii Name is called out for last time Death is one point in Roman life that is not bathed in religion no real connection i Sometimes a vague belief in life after death but not as pronounced as in monotheism ii llo prayer sacrifice or worship Often inscriptions in first person on gravestones Preparing the Body i Washed in warm water then anointed dressed and garlanded ii Plaster mould of face is made iii Wailing and lamenting for grief iv Mourners would wear unlltempt clothes and let their hair grow long RATHER than dressing UP v Body laid on funeral couch then cremated vi Perfume and flowers counter smell of corpse vii Coin is placed in mouth Funeral Procession i Talltes body outside of city walls ii llen show no emotion women show far more emotion l You can hire a set of women to show emotion for you professional mourners ifyou are wealthy Bodies are usually cremated at a funeral pyre Religion in the Roman World l Polytheism belief in many gods 2 Henotheism The focus is on one god but with the acknowledgment that other gods exist 3 4 State cult This is not a reference to today s implications rather it refers simply to organized worship U l l l l Monotheism Belief in one god l l Religious leader positions were exclusive to upper class ONLY ll Priests would have been handpicked from powerful families ill Also held political power power concentrated in the hands ofa few powerful people iii They did not receive specific training for their position 6 Official duty of political elite to look after cults NOT a priest a trained professional religious leader ll Interpreting omens and responding 2 Festivals 3 Divination and investigating sacrifice entrails 7 All other religion was privately run ll Never the responsibility of the state responsibility of the private group ill Can erect a temple and run an organized cult for any god 8 NOTE Even though re go is the root of the word re 39gon it is much more than simply organized religion it is closer to an attitude towards the gods 9 Festivals ll Exorbitant amount of festivals and holidays for the gods ill Official events have a religious undertone iii llo concept of separation between religion and politics the two were intertwined lOl Divinities do not always merit the same sort of worship al Some never had any cults dedicated to them such as Father Tiber of the Tiber River DESPITE being integral parts of mythology bl There is a difference between what is in mythology and what is worshipped i ll Benign and Hostile Gods a One must pay respects give sacrifices and worship in order to appease the gods bl If done well enough people under that deity will flourish cl quotI give to you so thatyou will give back to mequot Religion and the State U Vestal virgins Hair of a bride before her wedding ceremony Keep that hairstyle permanently as if frozen Clothing is that of a married woman Cannot marry within service 30 years then can return to regular life Most remain at the temple as prlestesses and never marry Extremely wealthy given money when entering into service Usually come from very wealthy families One type of woman that is far more independent i No guardians can own property can do business transactions without permission ii Far more powerful than other women but there are only six of them Supposed to be sexually purequot for their service cannot be seen in any relationship with a man Sexual purity represents survival of Rome as does fire that they tend i If fire goes out the responsible Virgin would be flogged and suspected of breaking her vow of chastity Women who have sexual relationships with men would be buried alive Focused on tending hearth of Vesta as long as this is done Rome is in good shape Rest of Priests are men Four different colleges a The pondex maxmus il Responsible for all state religion ii Responsible for everything even remotely religiously significant iii Priests are called amen ivl Most of the priests are associated with several bans such as being unable to ride a horse unable to touch iron orioin an army etc bl The Seprem l39r epuones i Seven priests responsible for organizing banquets for the gods to placate them cl Oumde Cm l39 i Responsible for consulting Sybilline boollts ii Make sure interpretation of signs is correct iii Priests of Apollo dl Augurs il Observe the sky and flight of birds iil Carried uuus to carve out space in the sky where they are observing
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