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by: Alyssa Leathers

Week10WaterandMajorMinerals.pdf 2210

Marketplace > Ohio State University > Natural Sciences > 2210 > Week10WaterandMajorMinerals pdf
Alyssa Leathers
Human Nutrition
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Human Nutrition
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Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Leathers on Monday November 3, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 2210 at Ohio State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition in Natural Sciences at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 11/03/14
Human Nutrition 2210 11314 156 PM Week Ten Water and Major Minerals VVater 50 o 70 o of the body Muscle 73 water Fat 20 o water Intracellular fluid fluid within the cell Intracellular water volume depends on potassium and phosphate concentration Potassium Phosphate Extracellular fluid outside the cells Extracellular water volume depends on sodium and chloride concentration Sodium Chloride Fluid Balance Water shift freely inout of the cells Controlled by the electrolyte concentration Gatorade electrolytes make sure to control waterfluid balance in body Where electrolytes go water will follow Functions of Water Body temperature regulation 0 Water absorbs excess heat 0 Body secrets fluid via sweating 0 Skin is cooled as perspiration evaporates Removal of body waste 0 Via urine 0 Urea excretion excess nitrogen 0 Sodium excretion 0 Avoid concentrated urine stay hydrated Amniotic fluid joint lubricant saliva bile Recommendations 1m water per 1 kcal The thirst mechanism When to consume more water Not reliable Concerns for infants older adults athletes Athletes weigh themselves before and after training Goal 3 cups for every pound lost Illness vomiting diarrhea fever Consume water before you39re thirsty wrestling Ignoring Thirst Shortage of water in body Increase fluid conservation Antidiuretic hormone forces kidney to conserve water reduce urine flow stop from peeing 0 Help conserve water from being lost Aldosterone signals the kidney to start to retainreabsorb sodium attractconserve water 0 Help conserve water from being lost Thirst Signal isn39t triggered until person loses 1 o 2 o of body weight in fluid Heat intolerance 10 o 12 o loss ComaDeath 20 loss StrengthEndurance loss 4 loss Minerals Inorganic no carbon All other essential nutrients are organic Some minerals essential for metabolic function May serve as COFACTORSstructural components of enzymes Essential minerals classified as MAJOR or TRACE MAJOR Minerals Require gt 100mgday Calcium sodium Phosphorus magnesium chlorine potassium sulfur TRACE Minerals Require lt 100mgday Iron Selenium fluorine iodine Copper cadmium cobalt zinc etc Bioavailability of Minerals Not all ingested minerals can be absorbed Presence of dietary fiber Animal products are better absorbed Soil content of mineral MineralMineral competition can compete for absorption Presence of Vitamins Vitamin Dcalcium Toxicity of Minerals Sodium Trace minerals more toxic Result of supplementation Presence of contaminants in supplements Table salt NaC 40 sodium 60 chloride Use for taste and preservation 95 of ingested sodium is absorbed Positive ion cation in extracellular fluid Gatorade sodium potassium Adosterone hormone regulates sodium balance Key for retaining body water Excretion regulated by the kidneys Muscle contraction Conduction of nerve impulses Sodium Deficiency Rare Persistent vomitingdiarrhea Excessive perspiration Muscle cramp nausea vomiting dizziness shock coma Normally kidney will respond by conserving sodium Food Sources of Sodium 2 to 23 is added by food manufactures processed food added sodium Milk and dairy low sodium Sodium content is on food label Sodium Needs Body only needs 100mgday low DV 2400mgday Typical intake 4000 7000mgday A LOT Salt Sensitive 10 to 151 adults High sodium intake high blood pressure Recommend 2 to 3gm sodiumday Recommended for all individuals Salt may be good for you after all Most studies suggest salt increase has negative effects Measured urinary sodium output 0 Highest sodium in urine had lower risk of dying from heart problems Problems with the study too short used only healthy people goes against all other studies Potassium 0 Positive ion in intracellular fluid Functions in fluid balance and nerve impulse transmission Associated with lowering blood pressure 90 consumed absorbed Potassium Sources Fruits veggies milk grains meat dried beans Potassium Deficiency RARE Use of diuretics Alcoholic anorexia nervosa bulimia nervosa Loss of appetite muscle cramps confusion irregular heart beat Chloride Negative ion for extracellular fluid Components of hydrochloric acid immune response nerve function Excess is excreted by kidneysperspiration Much is obtained form salt consumption High intake may cause high blood pressure Hypertension Systolic blood pressure over diastolic blood pressure Optimal lt 12080 HTN gt 140gt90 Why control blood pressure Silent killer no symptoms African Americans most at risk To prevent cardiovascular disease kidney disease stroke decline brain functions Causes of HTN Aging restricted blood flow obesity elevated insulin inactivity excess alcohol sodium sensitive Sodium and Blood Pressure Unclear if it39s sodium or chloride that39s responsible NaC Fluid retention leads to increased blood volume Increase blood pressure with intake salt sensitive Others Minerals and HTN Calcium lowers blood pressure Potassium lowers blood pressure Magnesium may lower blood pressure DASH diet Dietary Approaches to stop hypertension Low fat high fruitveggiesgrainsdairycalciumpotassiummagnesium Good in prevention of many chronic diseases Medication and HTN Diuretics 0 Reduce blood pressure 0 Increase Urine Output Slows heart rate relaxation of blood vessels Calcium 99 in bones and teeth 1 o is free within the body Makes up 40 of all minerals in present Major mineral found in greatest body Amount of body Absorption of calcium is not efficient Requires vitamin D for absorption Absorption of Calcium Not efficient Need vitamin D Increase absorption during times of need pregnancyinfancy Estrogen increases absorption Decrease Absorption of Calcium Vitamin D deficiency Menopause Excess Phosphorus Aging High fiber intake Blood Calcium is Tightly Regulated Blood level is maintained at the price of bone calcium Blood level will be maintained despite inadequate calcium intake Setting stage for future bone fractures Functions of blood calcium Blood clot Nerve impulse transmission Muscle contraction Cell metabolism activates various enzymes Building Higher Bone Mass Adequate diet Healthy body weight Normal menses menstruations Weight bearing physical activity Non smokerlower medication use Moderate intake of protein phosphorus sodium caffeine Other roles of calcium May lower blood pressure May reduce colon cancer May reduce PMS symptoms May lower blood cholesterol Reduce lead absorption Osteoporosis Calcium deficiency Pediatric disease with prolonged consequences Slender young inactive women who smoke About 113 million fractures per year Shrinking when elderly Bone growth and mass Bone loss begins at age 30 Women experience increase bone loss after menopause DEXA bone scan Determined by gender race familial pattern genetic factors Rapid and continual through adolescence Peak bone mass Diet and Lifestyle Factors Adequate diet Ca Vitamin D Healthy body weight don39t smoke limit excess Intake of alcohol Prevention Dairy products Kale collard mustard greens Calcium fortified foods Tofu if made with calcium carbonate Canned fish Calcium Supplement Recommended for people who can39t corporate Calcium into their lives Not recommended with high iron meal would cancel each other Calcium carbonate need ample stomach acid elderly don39t have Calcium citrate recommended for elderly acidity content Phosphorus Body absorption based on the body39s need 70 90 o No disease with deficiency May contribute to bone loss in elderly women Vitamin D enhances absorption Component of ATP cell membrane bone Intracellular Phosphorus Sources Deficiency is highly unlikely Various foods Phosphorus Toxicity Chronic imbalance bone loss Phosphate ions bind calcium Problem for individuals with inefficient kidney function 11314 156 PM 11314 156 PM


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