Week One Lecture Notes: Intro to Linguistics
Week One Lecture Notes: Intro to Linguistics LING-L 103
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Date Created: 10/07/15
Introduction to the Study of Language WEEK ONE 9 I Introduction Language A system of conventional symbols that is used to communicate thought 82 Steps of Communicative Language P PWF Speaker has an idea Speaker encodes message in language Speaker produces language Hearer perceives language Hearer decodes message Linguistics The scienti c study of the rules grammar of human language Linguists Things Linguists Study Phonetics the speech sounds of a language Phonology rules about how sounds combine in a language Morphology rules about how sentences are formed Syntax rules about how sentences are formed Semantics meaning Pragmatics language use in context Sociolinguistics language and community Psycholinguistics language processing and acquisition Computational Linguistics computer modeling of language Linguists Study Grammar Da c r a Grammar rules of language Grammatical possible utterances according to the rules of a particular language Ungrammatical impossible utterances 1the boy is asleep 2 asleep is the boy xX 3 is the boy asleep if 4 the is asleep boy X Linguists Study Descriptive Grammar Descriptive Grammar linguistics rules compiled from observation of the way language is actually used by speakers 0 Descriptive rules do not limit what is grammatical they faithfully describe the way that actual people speak in particular contexts Data 1 She an apple her gave 2 Can I borrow a pencil May Could 3 Who where you talking to To whom Prescriptive Grammar Rules about how a language quotshouldquot work eg Don t end a sentence with a preposition Do not always re ect how people actually use the language in their daily lives Linguists study descriptive grammar They are not interested in perpetuating prescriptiveness Just because we can understand what someone means doesn t mean that what they said was descriptively grammatical 0 Me want cookie o Colorless green ideas sleep furiously