In-Class Notes for Exam 2 Part I
In-Class Notes for Exam 2 Part I PSY 150A1
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by stefaa on Wednesday October 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Lazarewicz in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Structure of Mind & Behavior Lecture in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 10/07/15
Monday September 28 2015 STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS LET S GET SOME CONTEXT Neurons Brain amp Nervous System Sensation Perception WHAT IS CONSCIOUSNESS 0 Early psychology all about consciousness 0 Then came behaviorism consciousness like a speedometer If speedometer breaks car will still work just won t know the speed going Then reemergence of mental processes 0 Today s psvchological definition a person s awareness of hisher own existence sensations cognitions and environment 0 Much processing occurs unconsciously but some also conscious what s the difference 0 Sergent amp Dehaene 2004 certain threshold of brain activity consciousness Consciousness emerges from individual brain events musical chord analogy Different parts of brain depending what the person is aware of at a given time 0 Does NOT arise from perceptual area occipitaltemporal lobes 0 Instead several areas in parietal amp frontal lobes areas of decisionmaking and judgment 0 Consciousness is not merely perception It is an experience that emerges from patterns of brain activity We have begun to identify these patterns 0 EX See chair and see dog different thoughts THE TIMING OF CONSCIOUSNESS consciousness of action lags slightly behind the brain events that evoke it Libet 1985 2004 decision to move becomes conscious 20 ms before movement but Ask question know question raise hand brain activity of conscious decision to make hand 2ms of conscious in air that says okay lets move our hand motor cortex activity begins 500 ms The brain gets the ball rolling before we are ever consciously aware of our decision How it feels consciousnessbrain activityljbehavior What actually happens brain activityljconsciousnessljbehavior Are decisions every truly consciousness ls consciousness simply awareness of what our brain is already doing Does freewill exist IF WE DON T HAVE FREE WILLlt WHY DO WE BELIVE IN IT SO STRONGLY Wagner 2002 2 things need to happen for us to assume that Event A caused Event B 1 Event A comes immediately before Event B 2 It makes sense that Event A could cause Event B a BOOMl tree fall over OK SO WHAT DOES THIS HAVE TO DO WITH FREE WILL People experience a thought Event A then immediately observe themselves doing a behavior Event B ARE THERE TIMES WHEN WE THINK WE CONTROL THINGSlt BUT WE CLEARLY DON T Magical thinking belief that you can influence events at a distance with no obvious explanation of how eg bowling eg rooting for sports teams needs to wear jersey or in their chair and special food orders or else team will lose Thinking about an event just before it happens gives us a sense of authorship of that event EX Team losing so changed seats team winning seat changing influenced team win THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HAVING FEE WI AND BELIEVING IN FEE WIL Believing in free will matters internal sense of control Baumeister 2009 tell people there is no such thing as free will cheating refusal to help social irresponsibility WHY DO WE SLEEP restorative theory helps body recover from wear and tear energy evolutionary theory keeps people out of trouble at night poor night vision susceptible to predators falling off a cliff etc cognitive theory helps consolidate memories lock in more permnant easier to find RHYTHM OF SLEEP circadian rhythm regular bodily rhythms that occur within a 24 hour cycle the biological clock blood pressure pulse rate body temperature sugar level hormone levels metabolism etc EX naturenurture social cultural environment Sleep urges vs needs HOW DOES THE CIRCADIAN RHYTHM WORK hypothalamus reminder regulated bodily functions hunger thirst temperature blood pressure heart rate Wakes us up makes us sleep light sensitive like sunlight hypothalamus pineal gland endocrine gland that secretes melatonin melatonin hormone that makes people feel sleepy the hormone of darkness shut lights off earlier to feel Circadian rhythm sensitive to external cues of dark and light but also cultural cues to time eg clocks TV shows People deprived of such cues end up living a 249 hour day same with blind people STAGES OF SLEEP brain does not turn off during sleep sleep not a single state but several different stages accidental EEG discovery alpha waves relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed awake state Awake WW Stage 1 W Stage 2 W Stage 4 REM W Figure 1 STAGE 1 SLEEP asts 5 minutes transition from wakefulness to sleep theta waves Stage 1 waves less regular lower frequency close to alfa flashing lightsgeometric patterns experience fallingfloating sensation feel body jerk violently and suddenly hypnicjerk easily awakened from stage 1 would likely report that you weren t asleep at all STAGE 2 SLEEP asts 20 minutes sleep spindles brief bursts of rapid rhythmic brain activity and Kcomplexes single highamplitude waves spikes in waves fairly easily awakened would now likely report being asleep 1 930 STAGE 3 amp 4 SLEEP delta waves slow highamplitude waves associated with deep sleep decreases in heart rate blood pressure breathing rate and body temperature at all lowest point of the day during stage 4 restorative stages 3 amp 4 30 minutes RAPID EYE MOVEMENT REM SLEEP order of sleep stages 1 gt2gt3gt4gt3gt2gt REMgt2gt3gt4gt3gt2gt REM in REM EEG shows marked brain activity similar to that stage 1 sleep where you are nearly awake Rapid amp irregular breathing amp heart rate quick eye movements behind closed lids stage where you are most lik ly to have dreams that you remember REM dreams emotional storylike rich and vivid earlier stage dreams fleeting images less sotrylike visual auditory cortices more active during REM Sleep cycle repeats about every 90 minutes 45x per night stages 34 get shorter and shorter eventually disappear REM gets longer 2025 of full night s sleep is REM REM REBOUND longer more frequent REM stages following sleep deprivation brain keeps track of amount of REM sleep gt seeks it out of it needs more WHY DO WE DREAM first psychologists dream theory proposed by Sigmund Freud royal road to the unconscious dreams allow us to express and fulfill unconscious desires 2 930 FREUDIAN DREAM INTERPRETATION 2 levels of dream interpretation manifest content obvious memorable content of a dream Iatent content symbolic content and meaning Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar MODERN EXPLANATIONS OF DREAMS activationsynthesis theory dreams a product of random bursts of neural activity especially during REM high brain activity activate auditory and visual areas gt brain attempts to make sense of the information dreams may help consolidate memories better performance on leaned tasks after REM sleep EX Cram night before not morning of dreams may strengthen neural pathways by providing periodic stimulation especially during REM easier and easier and faster and faster when practiced 3 930 SLEEP DISORDERS insomnia repeated difficulty falling asleep staying asleep or waking up too early up to of people experience eg Xanax Valium Lunesta Ambien alcohol Seeping pills can sometimes be problematic solution to sleep difficulties suppress REM sleep addictive tolerance develops shouldn t mix with drinking problems TREATING INSOMNIA WITHOUT MEDICATION restrict sleeping hours to same schedule every night even on weekends and days off stimqus control create association between bed and sleep by using bed for sleep only ok and sex can t fall asleep because associates other things with bed give body cues to sleep hot shower shortly before bed dimmer light levels at home later in evening no exercise or caffeine in late eventing exercise earlier in day helps narcolepsy uncontrollable sleep attacks 520 minutes sip into REM within 10 minutes ike hitting a wall not even feeling tired difficult to live with 70 experience cataplexy loss of muscle control slurred speech impaired vision triggered by intense emotions excitement fear anger embarrassment laughter etc deficit in hypocretin neurotransmitter that keeps us alert sIeep apnea person temporarily stops breathing during sleep loud snoring airway muscles relax during sleep decreased oxygen wakes sleeper 400 times per night typicay no memory of waking breathing problems usually diagnosed by others or chronic fatigue even steady schedule and always fatigued more common in people overweight TREATING SLEEP APNEA most common treatment CPAP machine Continuous Positive Airway Pressure stream of compressed air keeps breathing airway open allows breathing night terrors vivid amp frightening experiences while sleeping stages 3 4 wake up gasping sometimes screaming suddeny sit up sweating amp breathing heavily usuay impossible to wake up or console typically no memory of waking usuay impossible to wake up or console typically no memory of waking distinct from nightmares nightmare bad dreams most common among 37 YO 56 of children more common in boys usuay passing can occur among menwomen of any age usually more chronic for adults treated with therapy antidepressants in adults What is Learning learning relatively perminant change in thoughtbehavior due to experience at the heart of adaptability Iearing breeds hope Conditioning conditioning the process of learning asssociations mental pairing between events Classical Conditioning stimulus A becomes associated with stimulus B if stimulus A causes an automatic reflexive behavioral response in time stimulus B produces that same behavior by itself van Pavlov 18491936 Russian physiologist digestive processes dogs salivated at sight of food dish sight of person who brought food etc turned attention to studying learning prebehaviourist Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning conditioned learned unconditioned automatic unconditioned stimulus US stimulus food that automatically elicits a response unconditioned response UR automatic reflexive response to the US salivation due to the food before conditioning neutral stimulus tone no response during conditions US food paired with conditioned stimulus CS originally neutral stimulus tonegt gains significance through pairings with US conditioned response CR learned response salivation due to the tone to the CS Gneralization amp Discrimination stimulus generalization tendency for CR salivation to be elicited by stimuli that are similar to the CS tone but not identical closer it is to original CS gt more CR very adaptive Generalization and Discrimination stimulus discrimination ability to distinguish among similar stimuli respond only to acutal CS also very adaptive Reminders About Classical Conditioning association between 2 paired stimuli AampB if A unconditioned stimulus causes automatic behavior unconditional response eventually B conditioned stimulus Will cause the same behavior conditioned response Unconditioned response birdseed unconditioned stimulus birds going to the birdseed Flush and hot gt toilet ush conditioned 1 Conditioning Attitudes a attitude positivenegative evaluation of something likedislike 1 Olson amp Fazio 2001 The Pokemon Study 2 Stream of words images Pokemon characters 3 target character gt press button a 2 other character appeared With positivenegative wordsimages 1 Bulbasaur and we cream ii Chipmunk and cockroaches 395 E a conditioned emotional response emotional response elicited by a CS 2 Conditioning Emotions i can lead to phobias N w Jim f m af rm 5mm b Watson amp Rayner 1920 Little Albert i little albert 1 11 MO infant allowed to play with white rat no fear of rat did fear loud noises a Can we condition fear i Loud Noice US ii Crying for Noise UR iii White Rat CS iv Crying for rat CR 1 Loud noise is coming now when rat is seen that s why scared 2 Soon Developed a phobia of rats a Began crying withdrawing when rat was presented i Begin to generalize not liking white and uffy l rabits Santa Clause 3 Conditioning Biology 0 biological preparedness builtin readiness to easily pair certain CS CR 0 Less learning need to condition fear for things like Snakes heights scorpians harder with chairs 0 A specific type of biological preparedness O taste aversion classically conditioned avoidance of a certain foodtaste that made you sick 0 Discovery of Taste Aversion Garcia amp Koelling 1966 studied effects of radiation on rats drank less water in radiation chamber plastic bottles than in home cage glass bottles rats given sugar water IVdrinking water followed by no radiationmild radiationstrong radiation then given choice to drink sweet water regular water sicker you get the more you avoid the water 4 Medical Uses of Classical Conditioning 0 e g conditioning the immune system 0 Ader amp Cohen 1975 How long does taste aversion last in rats I paired sugar water with cyclophosphamide 0 drug from organtransplant surgery gt suppress immune system 0 side effect nausea O taste aversion then extinction I but then the rats all started dying BUT WHY O taste of sweetened water associated with suppressed immune system I even in the absence of immune suppressing drug 0 pairing sweet sherbet and adrenaline gt boost immune system 5 Classical Conditioning amp Therapy systematic desensitization therapy technique for phobiasfears gt associate relaxation with presence of feared object situation gradually eXposing person to feared stimulus over and over until not Operant Conditioning 0 conditioning in which behavior is associated with consequences 0 rewards and punishment Thorndike s Puzzle Box 0 Edward Thorndike gt puzzle box I Once cats gure out to push lever for escape they do so faster amp faster 0 Law of Effect rewarded behaviorS gt more likely to be repeated I More they learn get out and get food if I act this way E 39F39ullalainglh39a l SUU W rimrig quotmnrlnm 39 a l 4m I E 3m 6 E E 2mm 7 E l E r a IUD p U in in in 4H 5H ml m Trials BF Skinner 19041990 Most influential and controversial of the behaviorists Developed principles of operant conditioning gt Skinner Box aka operant chamber Leverbutton to reward with food Floor is an electric grid Speaker Signal lights How does operant conditioning work shaping gradual process of reinforcing organism for behavior that gets closer and closer to the desired behavior successive approximations Reinforcement something that comes after a behavior gt increases likelihood of performing behavior again best reinforcers depend on the organism circumstance etc 2 Types of Reinforcement Positive vs Negative Positive means you add something Negative means you take something away 0 positive reinforcement desired reinforcer given after a behavior increases future behavior Skinner Box Examples food pellet electrical stimulation of hypothalamic Human examples 0 Negative reinforcement unpleasant stimulus removed following desired behaviors increase future behavior skinner box ex removal of shock strengthening behavior by taking something painful away human example taking aspirin for headache fastening seat belt to stop dinging noise addicts using drug Levels of Reinforcement 0 primary reinforcers natural reinforces don t need to be learned gt aid survival 0 water food sleep air sexetc o secondary reinforcer stimulus that is paired with primary reinforcer gt becomes reinforcer itself 0 money grades praise animal clickers etc Timing of Reinforcement more immediate more learning more delay less learning eg speeding tickets more likely to stop if pulled over than in mail The Struggle For SelfControl preference for immediate reinforcement but often need to delay gratification Mische et al 1989 4 year olds given choice small amount of candy now or large amount later choosing to wait gt social competence higher achievement in adolescence better SAT scores Schedules of Reinforcement continuous reinforcement gt fast lasting partia reinforcement gt slower learning but slower extinction 4 schedules of partial reinforcement interval schedules gt time ratio schedules gt of desired behaviors Interval Schedules 1 fixed interval schedule reinforcement for desired behavior after a certain interval of m i Skinner box example reward for lever press after 5 mingt don t reward behavior until another 5 min passes ii human example typical student s study schedule paychecks b Behavior slows down after renforcement picks up right before reinforcement scalloped pattern o Skinner Fl schedule lazy 2 Variable interval schedule reinforcement given for behavior after changing interval of time a Skinner box example lever press rewarded after 2 min then 8 min then 5 min etc b Human example pop quizzes students continually study rather than cramming i Slow but steady behavior 3 fixed ratio schedule reinforcement after set number of behaviors a Skinner box example food pellet after every 10th lever press b human examples worker paid for every 10 products made frequent flyer programs i stepwise pattern of behavior 4 Variable Ratio Schedule reinforcement after a variable number of responses a Skinner box example food pellet after 6 lever presses then 14 then 2 etc b human examples slot machines commision sales highest rate of responding most resistant to extinction don t know when you ll be reinforced Punishment unpeasant event that occurs as a consequence of an undesired behavior decreases the likelihood of the behavior in the future Types of Punishment 0 positive punishment undesired behavior leads to introduction of an unpleasant stimulus spanking electric shock 0 negative punishment removal of a pleasant stimulus following undesired behavior take away cell phone The Biggest Problem with Punishment 0 tells you what not to do rather than what to do Punishment alone much less effective than punishment reinforcement but reinforcement is good Quick review operant conditioning Classical conditioning gt association between 2 external stimuli behavior automatic operant condition between behavior and consequence behavior conscious intentional