Chaffee, Leighann TPSYCH 101A
Chaffee, Leighann TPSYCH 101A TPSYCH 101A
University of Washington Tacoma
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meiling Sproger on Monday November 3, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to TPSYCH 101A at University of Washington Tacoma taught by Leighann Chaffee, M.A in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 342 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences at University of Washington Tacoma.
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Date Created: 11/03/14
Psychology Class Notes 102914 How do we solve problems Four different strategies to solve problems trial and error Algorithms Heuristics thinking shortcuts more errors Insight Decision making forming judgments We use are intuition to make decisions Bene t based on experience automatic and quick limiting is subjective Heuristics Representativeness compares to our prototypes Availability Overconfident Optimistic but can get in the way of our success Belief perseverance hard to accept new ideas Framing how questions are phrased to us Slower traffic keep right vs stay right except to pass Language our spoken written and signed words and the ways we combine them to form meaning Language Development Receptive Language understand meaning understanding is being said 410 month babies can understand Productive Language communicate meaning speaking and writing 4 mo babbling lot of reinforcement given to the kid to make them start talking 12 mo 1 word stage 12 years vocabulary explosion 2 years two words stage 2 words combined to make meaningful 24 mo combos and grammar Theories of language learning 1 Behavioral infants need to be taught language eg Skinner gains consistent throughout life Frequency of responsiveness predicts acquisition 2 Infants teach themselves language is too complex for behaviorism conditioning Noam Chomsky Innate structure for language you are born with he coined language acquisition device 3 Social Forces cooperate and survive Hybrid theory All three of these theories are interconnected MOST LIKELY THEORY CriticalSensitive Periods eg the earlier you learn a second language the better you are at grammar The age cut off is age 7 They can t get past the 24 month 2 word stage very well after this age Aphasia language de cit Depends on if we are hearing words seeing words or speaking words because they are processed in different parts of the brain respectively Auditory cortex amp Wernicke s area visual cortex amp angular gyrus and Broca s area amp motor cortex Animals display some of the same capacity as humans insight use of tools numerical ability and cultural patterns Linguistic Determinisms Benjamin Lee Whorf language determines the way we think Consider selfperfection and personality in bilingual students Ted Talk How Language Transformed Humanity Chimpanzees lack social learning quotMonkey see monkey mostly cannot doquot Humans can build on others wisdom Cumulative cultural adaptation Visual theft by watching someone someone can do it better without doing all the work Language solved the problem of visual theft Language allows us to cooperate with each other and make improvements Language is the most valuable trait that has ever evolved Language is the voice of our genes 70008000 different languages around the world Greatest variety of language are where people are mostly packed Language establishes identities to prevent others from interloping however it slows the ow of genes technology ideas and wisdom Confronted with the idea that we might have to extinct all other languages to be one world full of cooperation Chapter 10 Intelligence lnborn mental capacity Can it be quanti ed eg college admissions IQ tests standardized tests Eg College Admissions you send in an essay test scores grades NOT A GREAT PREDICTOR of college success Other Experiences language talent expressed recommendation Intelligence Social Construct Construct hypothetical factor not measured directly but inferred unlike body temperature Intelligence is abstract not comparable to test scores TED Talk Temple Grandin the world needs all kinds of minds the talk is all opinion The world needs different kinds of minds to work together There are three kinds of thinkers Visual thinkers Pattern thinker and Word thinkers We need mentors to help studentskids develop skills We need good teachers in high schools Intelligence mental quality earn from experience Solve problem Use knowledge to adapt to new situations Spearman s g factor 1 general intelligence 1 common skill set Factor Analysis Gardner 8 intelligences Linguistic logical mathematical Musical SanaI Bodily kinesthetic Intra personal Interpersonal Naturalist Sternberg s 3 intelligences PAC 1 Analytical intelligence academic problem solving 2 Creative intelligence adapt to new situations and generate new ideas 3 Practical intelligence knowing the best way to solve problem out of all the option management Brain damage Caring over one skill set to another area abilities come in packages Savant Syndrome in general they are below average but have one genius related to memory more plastic UNI I Creativity ability to produce novel and valuable ideas Standard tests don t Creativity tests require divergent thinking Intelligence tests demand a single correct answer requires convergent thinking Intrinsic motivation done for yourself Extrinsic motivation reward given for external chores After a period of extrinsic rewards the intrinsic motivation goes down Correlation Causation Soapbox 1 Scienti c Attitude Soapbox 2 Psychology in uencing the quality of life Soapbox 3 Ted Talk take home message Is it rational that people are afraid of what they were put on this earth to do People are more scared of creative abilities than quotnormal careersquot Because it s connected to death and depression Creative people are killed by their creative ventures Unfortunately we accepted that being artistic leads to anguEh Therefore one needs to put up an emotional wall that prevents one to get depressed knowing that their best work is behind them It s hard for the artist to wake up the next morning after being compared to Allah 103114 NOTES Emotional Intelligence ability to perceive and understand and use and manage emotions Not everyone believes emotional and creative intelligence exists IQ test development Alfred Binet to identify were extra help was needed in school Mental age the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance IQ mental agechronological age x 100 Normal curve is bell shaped and symmetrical 40160 score WASL is an achievement test assess what a person has learned IQ or SAT is an aptitude test designed to predict a person s future performance or capacity to learn Psychometrics Surveys tests Psychological tests must be standardization normed reliability consistency throughout the years testretest and validity accuracy IQ tests have validity problems Stability or Change Are you the same intelligent even when you age Research says it declines however it is misleading because it detected Cohort effects The cohorts were different ages They had different developmental experiences because they were born in different decades Seattle Longitudinal Study does follow up work every seven years but is affected by work and home environment Intelligence IS stable throughout adult hood Crystallized intelligence facts that don t change Fluid intelligence older people have this type of problem The Low Extreme Intellectual disability 2 meanings of bias Detects cultural experience has been present since the beginning of iq tests Unbiased based on predicted validity Stereotype Threat concern of negative evaluation based on stereotype Related to working memory Feeling stereotyped blocks working memory Part of 11514 Notes Unfortunately I did not take notes throughout the whole lecture on this day Physiological mechanisms Hypothalamus Gut brain Neuropeptides appetite hormones more for hunger not satiety Leptinongterm satiety signal Satiety full leptin resistance Redundant and complex system cannot change one variable and x obes y Behavioral mechanisms Taste Preference Experience culture Social facilitation eating more with other people around and unit bias Ecologicalcontextual Reward Ansel Keys motivational hotspots created from restriction 113114 NOTES Goal Directed Behavior Eating sex belonging and achievement Instinct Theory pattern through a species and occurs without being learned Eg rooting re ex looking for nipple of breast milk Drive Reduction Theory need produces drive like thirst then we drink water to reduce the drive thirst Aim of DRT homeostasis a balanced internal state Needs are also affected by our external environment in uencing us Uncen ves Optimal Arousal in addition to DRT we want to be engaged in the things that are around us We seek OA after our DRT is met Otherwise we are board TO MUCH STIMULATION STRESS and we get out of that state to achieve homeostasis again Positive incentives we seek things that are pleasurable quotInfovoresquot we constantly seek information that we are interested about Maslow39s Hierarchy of needs humanistic psychology Self Transcendence nd meaning beyond yourself SelfActualization living up to your fullest and unique potential Esteem achieve respect from others that we feel con dent in Love and Belonging Safety needs Physiological needs We can override this order and culture can affect this order disorders and achievement based people Food Feeding Redundant and Complex system maintain homeostasisset point Ancel Keys 1950 Food Restrictions body gured out how to live with half the amount of calories however these men became food obsessed This created a quotmotivational hot statequot they lost interest in pretty much everything else including sex People think about food all the time Eg groceries when hungry In western culture we don t stay at a set point which changes body chemistry Glucose sugar works with insulin Appetite hormones gut brain neuropeptides tell the brain when to stop and start to eat Signals to start a meal Smell foodsee food time of day friends stress culture stomach growling usually not a big factory in eating There are neuropeptide neuropeptides that signal hunger Why do we stop eating Leptin CCKPYY maybe a cognitive component stuffed empty plate smells more variety like a buffet we eat more because there are new smells Sensory speci c satiety social aspect MORE HUNGER SIGNALS THAN SATIETY SIGNALS Leptin longterm satiety signal tells brain to decrease food consumption leptin was a hope to cure obesity However it didn t work because they already have leptin It wouldn t change the system Human food produces leptin resistance Our biology says we should eat when food is available but this is challenged because of grocery stores Taste Preference in uenced by Neophobia don t like new things 910 exposures we have a universal preference for sugars habit taste aversion culture Gut brain neuropeptides appetite hormones more for hunger than satiety Social Facilitation we eat more when we are around people plateaus at 11 people We also eat like them like nishing ones plate USA unit bias we have larger serving sizes researching Wansink large bowl ate more small bowl ate less 31 difference More variety more food Reward psychological in uence different stimuli have different hedonic values Palatable foods are high in sugar and fat Sugar is a very potent motivator The hidden in uence of social networks Nicholas Christakis TED TALK Other pairs of people are affected not just patient zero It s a multicentric spread Obesity affects like this There are groups of obese people clustering How big are the cluster what causes the clusters Friends friends friend friend have no effect but the other levels do 57 percent induction they gain weight you gain weight It changes the NORM for what an acceptable weight is It has a resilience that exists across time It s a living problem Smiling emotional contagion we transmit emotion to each other Unhappy patches Happy clusters spread like obesity Susan Savage Rumbaugh Ted Talk take home message So we have a bispecies environment we call it a quotpanhomoculturequot We39re learning how to become like them We39re learning how to communicate with them in really highpitched tones We39re learning that they probably have a language in the wild And they39re learning to become like us Because we believe that it39s not biology it39s culture So we39re sharing tools and technology and language with another species
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