Notes from 10/05 Class: Learning and Operant Learning
Notes from 10/05 Class: Learning and Operant Learning PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camila Perez on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Gayle Fraught, Callie Gibson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see intro to psychology 101 in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Chapter Six Learning Three types Cassica conditioning Operant Observational Learning Learningchange in behavior that results from experience involves understanding the association between events associations are acquires through classical condition and operant conditioning Learning Theory arose in early 20th century Behaviorist movement came out of opposition to the psychoanalyst John B Watson argued only observable behavior was valid indictor of psychological activity the environment and its effects were sole determinants of learning Behaviorism was dominant into 1960s and had a huge in uence on every area of psychology many principles remain relevant today Classical Conditioning Watson was in uence by Ivan Pavlov s research on the salivary re ex Cassica Conditioning neutral object comes to elicit a response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response Video Notes 1Uncontained stimulus unconditioned response 2neutral stimulus Bell no conditioned response 3 Bell Food Unconditioned response 4 conditioned stimulus Bell conditioned response Unconditioned Response UR response that does not have to be learned such as a re ex Unconditioned Stimulus US stimulus that elicits respons such as a re ex without any prior learning Conditioned Stimulus CSstimuus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place Conditioned Response CR response to a conditioned stimulus response that has been learned Litte Albert Second Order Conditioning CS becomes associated with other stimuli associated with the UCS helps account for the complexity of learned associations Acquisition how the CR is rst elicited occurs gradually over repeated trails Generalization responding to a stimulus that is similar to the CS Discrimination Not responding to a stimulus that is different to a CS Extinction when the CS is presented alone for repeated trials the CR weakens Spontaneous CR will appear when the CS is presented alone again after a break CC amp Phobias Phobiaacquired fear out of proportion to real threat of an object Fearing Conditioning process of classically conditioning animals to fear neutral objects examples Little Albert Responses include speci c physiological and behavioral reactions Cassica Conditioning techniques used as effective behavioral therapies to treat phobias Counterconditoning exposing patient to small doses of feared stimulus when they engage in enjoyable task Systematic Desensitization formal treatment based on counterconditoning Evolutionary Signi cance some conditioned stimuli more likely than others to produce learning Conditioned food aversion association between earing food and eating sick response occurs even if illness was cause by virus or some other condition animals that associate certain avor with illness ants therefore avoid that avor more likely to survive and pass along gene Operant Learning Observational Learning Reinforcement increasing behavior Edward Thorndlikea behavior s positive consequences will make it more likely to occur Operant Conditioning Manipulate the consequences of behavior see how these consequences in uence later behavior both reinforcement and punishment can be positive or negEtive REINFORCEMENT PUNISHMENT POSITI ADD SOMETHING ADD SOMETHING VE ENCOURAGES BEHAVIOR DISCOURAGES BEHAVIOR NEGATI TAKE AWAY SOMETHING gtquotTAKE AWAY VE ENCOURAGES BEHAVIOR SOMETHING DISCOURAGES BEHAVIOR Types of Reinforces Primary Reinforcers biological need like food water sex praise smiling Secondary Reinforcersthings that get you primary reinforce like money IOU and Promises Shaping reinforcing little steps to reach the more complex task Reinforcement Schedules Ratio vs Interval Ratio reinforcement comes after a certain number of responses lnterval reinforcement comes after a certain amount of times Fixed vs Variables Fixed a constant pattern of reinforcement Variable a uctuating pattern of reinforcement f implti n fa completion of a a cnatant arranging nunn er of number of Fra iit H l reapenaas H iwnmme he M Heinfomesthe first response rst response after a constant after a sham gingi 1 amount 1 ammun39l lm Bioogy and cognition in uence operant conditioning an organism s biological makeup restricts the types of behaviors the organism can learn How does watching others affect learning Albert Bandura Bobo Doll Observational Learning just by watching you can learn something and you don t need reinforcement Social Learning paying attention to an action remember the observed behavior be able to replicate the behavior be motivated to produce the behavior learning can be passed on through cultural transmissions Enculturation How culture socializes with its children and young people People create remember and deal with ideas on the basis of cultural learning Memes ideas behaviors or styles that spreading from person to person with a culture Characteristics of culture Not static Material and nonmaterial lntercultura competences the ability to communicate successfully with people of other cultures
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