Week 4 Notes HIST
Week 4 Notes HIST Hist 1010-110
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kyle Blanchard on Thursday October 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010-110 at Western Michigan University taught by Luigi Berto in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Modern Western World in History at Western Michigan University.
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Date Created: 10/08/15
Modern Western World Notes Week 4 10815 The Enlightenment 18th Century Intellectual Movement Intellectual Movement a b During the 18th Century several English and French intellectuals believed that they were more enlightened than their compatriots Philosophies i Voltaire was joined by a group of thinkers known as the philosophes Charles de Montesquieu jean d39AIembert ii Because Denis Diderot commissioned many of them to write for his in uential Encyclopedia they are also known as quotthe Encyclopedistsquot Enlightenment Thinkers i According to these thinkers human reason could be used to combat ignorance superstition and tyranny and to build a better world Enlightenment Targets i Their principal targets were religion and the domination of society by a hereditary aristocracy Agents of Change i Merchants had their own ideas about the sort of world they wanted to inhabit and they became major agents of change in the arts gov and economy New Core Values i The general trend was clear individualism freedom and change replaced community authority and tradition as core European values Beliefs l Tolerance Reason Freedom of religious belief Freedom of speech ii quotI do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say itquot iii The proposed the quotseparation of powers between executive legislative and judicial branches of gov iv They proposed quotchecks and balancesquot v Becca a 1 Laws existed to preserve social order not avenged crime 2 Accused should receive speedy trials 3 Torture should never be used 4 Degree of punishment should match seriousness of crime 5 Capital punishment death penalty should be abolished vi Mary Wollstonecraft 1 Women should be equally educated along with men 2 Women should enter professions traditionally dominated by men like medicine and politics Resistance i Europeans were changing but Europe39s institutions were not keeping pace with that change ii The church insisted that it was the only source of truth and that all who lived outside its bounds were damned Middle Class Resentment i The middle classes the bourgeoisie were painfully aware that they were paying taxes to support a fabulously expensive aristocracy which contributed nothing of value to society Role of the Aristocrats i It was among those aristocrats that the French Enlightenment philosophers were to nd some of their earliest and most enthusiastic followers Opposition to Tyranny i lntellectuals opposed tyranny and dogma but had no notion of reinventing democracy ii They had far too little faith in the ordinary person for that iii They thought that educated and sophisticated people could through the exercise of their reason see that the world could and should be greatly improved Enlightenment in England i Great Britain developed its own Enlightenment fostered by thinkers likeJohn Locke and David Hume England v France i The English and French Enlightenments exchanged in uences through many channels Struggle in Europe i Voltaire and his allies in France struggled to assert the values of freedom and tolerance in a culture where monarch and Church opposed almost everything they stood for Enlightenment in America i Many of the intellectual leaders of the American colonies were drawn to the Enlightenment 1 Jefferson Washington and Franklin were powerfully in uenced by Enlightenment thought American Revolution i The language of natural law of inherent freedoms of self determination which seeped so deeply into the American grain was the language of the Enlightenment Heritage of the Enlightenment i Today the Enlightenment is often viewed as a historical anomaly a brief moment when a number of thinkers infatuated with reason vainly supposed that the perfect society could be built on common sense and tolerance
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